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THE LIFE AND TIMES OF EMMA GOLDMAN
A Curriculum for Middle and High School Students

Selected Bibliography


Works by Goldman and Contemporary Editions of Primary Sources
Biography
Autobiographies of Goldman Contemporaries
Biographies of Goldman Contemporaries
Literature
Historical Background
Women's History


WORKS BY GOLDMAN and
CONTEMPORARY EDITIONS OF PRIMARY SOURCES

Goldman, Emma. Living My Life. 2 vols. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1931.
Reprint. 2 vols. New York: Dover Publications, 1970 (still in print).
Reprint. In one volume. Salt Lake City: Gibbs M. Smith, Inc., 1982.
The three editions above have the same pagination.
Abridged ed. New York: New American Library, 1977. Edited by Richard and Anna Maria Drinnon.

Goldman's thousand-page autobiography, the best overview of her early life and political involvement in the United States, covers her life to her deportation in 1919 to Soviet Russia and her exile in Europe and Canada. Indexed for easy reference.


Mother Earth. Reprint. New York: Greenwood Reprint Corporation, 1968.

The radical periodical that Goldman edited and published between 1906 and 1917 includes reports on her lecture tours; articles on political, social, and cultural issues; poetry; and political art on the cover of each issue. Among the writers who appeared in Mother Earth were Peter Kropotkin, Voltairine de Cleyre, Francisco Ferrer, Alexander Berkman, and, of course, Emma Goldman. Mother Earth also reprinted essays by writers such as Leo Tolstoy and Friedrich Nietzsche.


Goldman, Emma. Anarchism and Other Essays. New York: Mother Earth Publishing Association, 1910.
Reprint. New York: Dover Publications, 1969 (still in print).

A collection of Goldman's earliest essays that includes her discussion of the theory and practice of anarchism, plus "Patriotism: A Menace to Liberty," "The Tragedy of Woman's Emancipation," and "The Drama: A Powerful Disseminator of Radical Thought"--all written in Goldman's own forthright style.


Goldman, Emma. My Disillusionment in Russia. London: C. W. Daniel Co., 1925 (complete text).
Reprint. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, Apollo Editions, 1970.
Reprint. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1983.

This compelling 250-page book recounts Goldman's experiences in Soviet Russia in 1920-21 and is especially timely for the advanced high school student of history. Includes Goldman's analysis of the Russian Revolution and the Bolsheviks' suppression of free speech and especially the organizing activities of the anarchists.


Goldman, Emma. The Social Significance of the Modern Drama. Boston: Richard G. Badger, 1914.
Reprint. New York: Applause Theatre Book Publishers, 1987.

Demonstrates Goldman's belief in the transformational power of modern drama, focusing on Scandinavian, German, French, English, Irish, and Russian playwrights such as Ibsen, Strindberg, Hauptmann, Shaw, and Chekhov.


Drinnon, Richard and Anna Maria, eds. Nowhere at Home: Letters from Exile of Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman.
New York: Schocken Books, 1975.

A moving collection of letters between lifelong friends and comrades written in middle and old age after they were expelled from the United States. The book is arranged in chapters under subjects such as "Communism and the Intellectuals," "Anarchism and Violence," and "Women and Men." An introduction, autobiographical fragment, and chronology complement these letters for the advanced high school reader.


Shulman, Alix Kates, ed. Red Emma Speaks: Selected Writings and Speeches by Emma Goldman.
New York: Random House, 1972.
Reprint. New York: Schocken Books, 1982.
Revised edition 1996. New Jersey: Humanities Press International.

An important collection of Goldman's essays and speeches drawn from the entire span of her career, arranged in four sections, "Organization of Society," "Social Institutions," "Violence," and "Two Revolutions and a Summary."


BIOGRAPHY

Chalberg, John. Emma Goldman: American Individualist. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991.

A brief (180-page) biography of Goldman's life from her emigration from Czarist Russia through her career in the United States to her life in exile. Appropriate for junior high and high school readers.


Drinnon, Richard. Rebel in Paradise: A Biography of Emma Goldman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.
Reprint. Boston: Beacon Press, 1970.
Reprint. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.

Approximately 300-page biography of Goldman suitable for the advanced high school reader. Chronicles Goldman's entire life with a focus on her contribution to the movement for free speech. All editions include illustrations and photographs of Goldman and her comrades .


Falk, Candace. Love, Anarchy, and Emma Goldman. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.
Rev. ed. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Complete biography of Goldman with an emphasis on the connection between her public vision and the realities of her private intimate life. A good way for the student to find many of the issues of love, jealousy, and women's struggle for independence mirrored and then brought out of the personal into the political realm, thus fostering an engagement with history.


Morton, Marian J. Emma Goldman and the American Left: "Nowhere at Home". New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992.

A brief biography of Goldman that relies heavily on published sources, especially Living My Life, and is suitable for high school students.


Shulman, Alix. To The Barricades: The Anarchist Life of Emma Goldman. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1971.

A well-written biography in the "Women of America" series suitable for junior high students, it concentrates on Goldman's life and career in the United States and includes only thirty pages on her years of exile. Includes an excellent selection of photographs.


Waldstreicher, David. Emma Goldman. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1990.

Part of the "American Women of Achievement" series, this biography is written for junior high students and features many photographs and illustrations. It can be used as a reference or supplemental history text or as a brief introduction to Goldman's life.


AUTOBIOGRAPHIES OF GOLDMAN CONTEMPORARIES

Anderson, Margaret. My Thirty Years War: An Autobiography. New York: Covici, Friede, 1930.
Reprint. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1971.

This 270-page autobiography by the editor of the magazine, the Little Review, is appropriate for junior or senior high school students. Anderson's impressions of Emma Goldman are documented in the chapter, "The Little Review," and many pictures of their contemporaries accompany the text.


Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley. The Rebel Girl: An Autobiography: My First Life (1906-1926).
New York: International Publishers, 1976.
Rev. ed. of I Speak My Own Piece: Autobiography of "The Rebel Girl."
New York: Masses and Mainstream, 1955.

This 350-page autobiography by the famous Industrial Workers of the World agitator and free speech fighter is suitable for high school students and includes photographs and reproductions of original documents. It covers the period from Flynn's childhood to her battles in the Sacco and Vanzetti case during the 1920s.


Sanger, Margaret. Margaret Sanger: An Autobiography. New York: W. W. Norton, 1938.
Reprint. New York: Dover Publications, 1971.

Five hundred pages of advanced high school reading about this birth control pioneer's life from her New York childhood through her tours of Russia, Europe, and finally India in 1936. Sanger's impressions of Goldman are documented in the chapter, "Hear Me for My Cause."


BIOGRAPHIES OF GOLDMAN CONTEMPORARIES

Bruns, Roger A. The Damndest Radical: The Life and World of Ben Reitman. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

A highly readable biography of the flamboyant Ben Reitman, Goldman's manager and lover between 1908 and 1917. This book discusses their work together, their conflicts with authorities across the country, and their tumultuous personal lives. It also chronicles Reitman's work with hobos, and his activities in promoting public awareness in the prevention of syphilis. Very accessible for high school readers.


Homer, William. Robert Henri and His Circle. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1969.

Robert Henri, a painter and teacher at the Ferrer Modern School, was a devoted admirer of Emma Goldman. Henri's interesting insights into Goldman's writings are expressed in the chapter, "Aspects of Henri's Career." A good reference for high school students.


Humphrey, Robert E. Children of Fantasy: The First Rebels of Greenwich Village. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978.

Excellent reference for the advanced high school student about the radical movement in Greenwich Village from 1910 to 1920. Hutchins Hapgood, Max Eastman, John Reed, Floyd Dell, Emma Goldman, and others are discussed and appear in many of the photographs.


Powers, Richard Gid. Secrecy and Power: The Life of J. Edgar Hoover. New York: Free Press, 1987.

An excellent biography of the first director of the FBI who served in that position for nearly fifty years. Before assuming that position in 1924, as a Justice Department official, Hoover had taken a personal interest in having Emma Goldman deported. See especially chapter 3, "The Red Years: The Lessons of Success." Suitable for the advanced high school student.


Theoharis, Athan, and John Stuart Cox. The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988.

Chapter 3, "Emma Goldman and the Scourge of the Infidel," is a fascinating analysis of Hoover's attitude toward the radicals of the World War I era. A good reference for high school students and teachers.


LITERATURE

Cahan, Abraham. The Rise of David Levinsky. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1917.
Reprint. New York: Harper, 1960.

This historical novel about one immigrant's assimilation and success on New York's Lower East Side paints a vivid picture of the garment district, the sweat shops, and the rise of the unions. Five hundred thirty pages of easy high school reading.


Day, Douglas. The Prison Notebooks of Ricardo Flores Magón. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991.

Emma Goldman was an avid supporter of Ricardo Flores Magón and his brother, Enrique, Mexican revolutionaries expelled from their own country at the turn of the century for their political activities against the Mexican dictator, Porfirio Díaz. In the United States, the Magón brothers continued to work in support of the Mexican revolution. Convicted under the Espionage Act for his vocal opposition to World War I, Ricardo died in prison under suspicious circumstances in 1922. This novel, largely, though not entirely, based on historical fact (Magón did not leave behind any prison notebooks), covers the last two months of his life, when he was imprisoned in Leavenworth Penitentiary, Kansas. Day's unromantic reconstruction of history portrays Magón and larger-than-life figures like Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata as real people, their idealism coupled with human foibles and character flaws. Includes some vulgar language. For the advanced high school reader.


Duberman, Martin. Mother Earth: An Epic Drama of Emma Goldman's Life. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.

Written by a historian, this three-act play captures the intensity of Goldman's (and her comrade, Alexander Berkman's) devotion to their beliefs. Largely faithful to the historical record, the play is suitable for high school literature and history classes.


Gold, Michael. Jews Without Money. New York: H. Liveright, 1930.
Reprint. New York: Avon Books, 1965, 1972.

This novel about a boy growing to manhood on the Lower East Side of New York in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is largely autobiographical and captures the flavor of that time and place. Gold was the leading literary figure in the American Communist party when he wrote this novel, and one of the few Communists who remained on good terms with Goldman despite the issues on which they disagreed.


Mannin, Ethel. Red Rose: A Novel Based on the Life of Emma Goldman. London: Jarrolds, 1941.

A balanced fictional treatment of Goldman written by a friend and fellow worker in the cause of the Spanish anarchists. Mannin, a professional writer, admired and respected Goldman's courage and passion for her ideal, but she was not blind to Goldman's shortcomings.


O'Neill, Eugene. The Iceman Cometh. New York: Random House, 1946.
Reprint. New York: Vintage Books, 1957.
(Reprinted in many other editions).

Characteristic of an O'Neill play, at issue in The Iceman Cometh are broad philosophical questions. Advanced high school students will profit from this study of human frailty and self-deception, which includes discussions of socialism and anarchism and features an off-stage character based on Emma Goldman.


Thoreau, Henry David. Civil Disobedience. 1849 (under the title "Resistance to Civil Government").
The Variorum "Civil Disobedience." Edited by Walter Harding. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1967.

Although largely ignored during Thoreau's own lifetime, "Civil Disobedience" has become highly regarded in the literature of American political protest. Written after Thoreau's arrest and overnight stay in jail for refusing to pay his taxes in protest of governmental support of slavery, Thoreau advocated individual disobedience of civil laws when in conflict with moral law and conscience. Thoreau's articulate argument has been cited by many political activists since Goldman's time, including Martin Luther King, Jr., and Mahatma Gandhi.


Thoreau, Henry David. Walden. 1854. The Variorum "Walden." Edited by Walter Harding.
New York: Twayne Publishers, 1962.

Representative of Thoreau's attempts to link life experiences with art and literature, Walden was inspired by Thoreau's two years of living a simple existence in the nature surrounding Walden pond. A critique of America's materialistic society and a reflection on life, spirituality, and nature, Walden is ultimately a meditation on democracy, and in praise of individuals motivated by their own principles, not those dictated by urban industrial society. Accessible for high school students.


Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. First edition, 1855. "World's Classics" edition with an introduction by Jerome Loving.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

A landmark in the history of American literature, this collection of poems has been a favorite of many generations of free thinkers, including Emma Goldman's, for its exaltation of individual freedom and sexual fulfillment, the spiritual power of nature, and for its reflection of the dignity of the common person. Praised by Ralph Waldo Emerson as "the most extraordinary piece of wit and wisdom that American has yet contributed," students should read Whitman's poetry to understand its contributions to literature and history.


Zinn, Howard. "Emma." In Maxine Klein, Lydia Sargent, and Howard Zinn, Playbook.
Boston: South End Press, 1986.

This short drama is ideal for classroom role playing. Use it in its entirety, or focus on Act I, Scene 2: "The Family"; or Act II, Scene 14: "Emma and Reporters."


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Anderson, Margaret, ed. The Little Review Anthology. New York: Hermitage House, 1953.

Includes excerpts of letters written from prison by Emma Goldman to Margaret Anderson. Also includes writings of the time by T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, William Carlos Williams, and others. A good way for the high school student to become more familiar with the literature and art of the period.


Avrich, Paul. The Modern School Movement: Anarchism and Education in the United States
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.

Excellent high school supplement to American history. The chapter, "Rebels and Artists," meticulously describes the events of an anarchist classroom and includes examples of literary and artistic works produced by students of these classrooms.


Chambers, John Whiteclay, II. The Eagle and the Dove: The American Peace Movement and
United States Foreign Policy, 1900-1922. 2d ed. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1991.

This collection of documents, with a long introduction by the editor, presents the debate over America's growing role in world affairs that culminated in involvement in World War I. Featured are the differences between Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, pacifists, radicals, and others over the direction of U.S. policy. Well represented is the prominent part played by women--including Jane Addams, Crystal Eastman, Alice Hamilton, and Lillian Wald--in the peace movement of the period.


Debs, Eugene V. Writings and Speeches of Eugene V. Debs. Introduction by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.
New York: Hermitage Press, 1948.

Founder and president of the American Railway Union, Eugene Debs was a bold and powerful speaker and organizer, and a four-time socialist contender for the U.S. presidency, beginning in 1900. For his unrelenting political activities against big business and as an outspoken opponent of World War I, he spent several stints in jail. His famous 1918 antiwar speech to the Ohio Socialist Party convention in Canton, Ohio, which landed him in jail for violation of the Espionage Act, appears in this volume along with other speeches representative of his socialist perspective. Compelling primary source material for the high school student in search of a deeper understanding of the differing political viewpoints of Goldman's time.


Dubofsky, Melvyn. We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.
Reprint. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.

A comprehensive history of the IWW, which tried to organize workers into one large industrial union, in its heyday from its founding in 1905 through World War I. Goldman counted many of its leaders among her friends and lent her support to many of its activities.


Foner, Jack D. Blacks and the Military in American History: A New Perspective. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1974.

To fill out the picture of American society during World War I, students will be most interested in chapter 6 of this book, which focuses on the opposing opinions of Black leaders like W.E.B. Du Bois, A. Philip Randolph, and Chandler Owen on black participation in World War I, and the experience of African Americans in the military at that time. This chapter details the impact of racism in the military and American society as a whole. It recounts significant events like the 1917 execution of thirteen black soldiers and life-sentencing of forty-two others stationed at Fort Sam Houston for their accused mutiny and murder of sixteen white people, and the race riots and increased Ku Klux Klan lynchings that led to the staging of the 1919 black-led Silent March in New York City.


Foner, Philip S., ed. Fellow Workers and Friends: I.W.W. Free Speech Fights as Told by Participants.
Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981.

Excellent compilation of primary source material that includes a biographical introduction to each participant and timelines to guide the reader. IWW comrades such as Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, John Panzner, C. E. Payne, Ed Nolan, and others tell their side of the free speech fights the Wobblies waged in various cities: Missoula 1909, Spokane 1910, Fresno and San Diego 1911-12, the Dakotas 1912-14, Kansas City 1914, and Everett, Washington, 1916. High school history classes may be interested in discovering events in their own city.


Gallo, Marcia, ed. Express Yourself: The First Amendment.
Howard A. Friedman First Amendment Education Project, American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California, Inc. in association with Red Dot Interactive, Inc., San Francisco, CA, 1992.

This educational interactive software program is designed to be fun for middle and high school students, identifying the boundaries and issues of freedom of expression and censorship most likely to be of concern to the student population: student journalism, campus-organizing, race relations, music, religion, and fashion. Video animation is effectively combined with music, graphics, and text in a menu-driven Macintosh Hypercard software program (requiring HyperCard 2.1, System 6.05 or greater, and a MacPlus or equivalent computer). The "Profiles" menu features eleven contemporary and historical figures significant to the establishment of First Amendment rights, including Emma Goldman, the Iroquois Confederacy, Dolores Huerta, Malcolm X, Robert Mapplethorpe, and 2 Live Crew. Highly recommended. Available free of cost to students, teachers, parents, and educators from the Northern California ACLU, 1663 Mission Street, Suite 460, San Francisco, CA 94103.


Hentoff, Nat. The First Freedom: A Tumultuous History of Free Speech in America. New York: Delacorte Press, 1980.

Chapters such as "Students/Teachers/Librarians: Free-speaking 'Persons' under the Constitution" and "The Hard, Early Times of the First Amendment from the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 to the 'Red Scare' of the First World War" provide an introduction for high school students to the issues and principles involved in the fight for free speech. Excellent discussions of real court cases presented in an interesting, readable manner.


Howe, Irving. World of Our Fathers. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976.

Excellent reference material for the high school student about the journey of the East European Jews to America, specifically New York City, and the life they found and made. A useful companion for studying Goldman's life and for reading other novels of the period such as Cahan's The Rise of David Levinsky.


Meltzer, Milton. Bread and Roses: The Struggle of American Labor, 1865-1915. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967.
Reprint. New York: New American Library, 1977.

Approximately 200 pages of visually appealing text, documents, photographs, and political cartoons about the rise of the unions for the advanced junior high or high school student. Includes a glossary of labor terms, bibliography, and index.


Orwell, George. Homage to Catalonia. London: Secker and Warburg, 1938.
Reprint. New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1952.
Reprint. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980.

Orwell, the English journalist and novelist, went to report on the Spanish civil war but ended up joining the fight against the Fascists. His account of his experiences and of the bitter divisions within the Republican ranks exposed the destructiveness of the Soviet-supported Spanish Communist party. This observation of what appeared to him totalitarianism in practice and his abhorrence of it was reflected in his later novels, Animal Farm (1945) and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949). Although not formally part of the curriculum, Goldman's last years were devoted to the cause of the Spanish anarchists in the Spanish civil war.


Roediger, Dave, and Franklin Rosemont, eds. Haymarket Scrapbook. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr Publishing Company, 1986.

An excellent resource on the Haymarket bombing and the execution and subsequent pardon of the accused anarchists, whose cause inspired Goldman. The book includes contemporary newspaper accounts of the event and its aftermath, writings by those directly involved and others whose lives were touched by the incident, short articles by historians, and numerous illustrations.


Schlissel, Lillian, ed. The World of Randolph Bourne. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1965.

This is an important anthology of writings by a critic who vigorously opposed U.S. participation in World War I. Part III presents other writers' contrasting opinions of the war; part IV features Bourne's essays on the war. Students should also read his essay, "The State." For advanced high school students only.


Stein, Leon. The Triangle Fire. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1962.
Reprint. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1985.

The definitive study of the tragic fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City that resulted in the deaths of 146 workers, most of them young women. Appropriate for high school students.


Vigilante, David. The Constitution in Crisis: The Red Scare of 1919-1920.
Los Angeles: National Center for History in the Schools, University of California, Los Angeles, 1991.

This study unit for grades 9-12 includes teacher background materials, three lesson plans--"The Law," "The Case against the Reds," and "The Courage of Their Convictions"--and student handouts of original documents on this dramatic event in modern American history.


Werstein, Irving. Strangled Voices: The Story of the Haymarket Affair. New York: Macmillan, 1969.

Approximately 100 pages about the Haymarket tragedy with illustrations of the events and documents. Appropriate for junior high and high school students. An interesting, well-written introduction to a critical episode in late nineteenth-century U.S. history.


Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1980.

A popular text for its recounting of episodes in history frequently ignored in standard texts, this book tells, as Zinn describes, "a history disrespectful of governments and respectful of people's movements of resistance." The book begins with an account of "Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress," and ends with a reflection on the prospect of "a population united for fundamental change." Of particular relevance for students eager to learn more about the life and times of Emma Goldman are chapter 12, "The Empire and the People," chapter 13, "The Socialist Challenge," and chapter 14, "War Is the Health of the State."


WOMEN'S HISTORY

Baum, Charlotte, Paula Hyman, and Sonya Michel. The Jewish Woman in America. New York: Dial Press, 1976.
Reprint. New York: New American Library, 1977.

An excellent account of the varying experiences of Jewish women in America, from the first small Sephardic migration through the Reform movement that flourished among the early German immigrants, to the later mass immigration of Eastern European Jews in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and accompanying union and Bund activity. Henrietta Szold, Emma Lazarus, Rose Schneiderman, and others appear in this rich history of women presented through biography, memoirs, and oral history.


Berkin, Carol Ruth, and Mary Beth Norton. Women of America: A History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.

Essays in this book focus on women's experience in America and provide excellent primary source documents. Included is information on feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Irish immigrant women in upstate New York, Chinese immigrant women in nineteenth-century California, and the planned parenthood movement.


Evans, Sara M. Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America. New York: Free Press, 1989.

One of the best one-volume surveys of American women's history published to date, this book discusses Goldman and her role in securing women's rights in the chapter titled "Women and Modernity," an in-depth look at women's issues and activism in the early 1900s. A good reference for high school students.


Glenn, Susan A. Daughters of the Shtetl: Life and Labor in the Immigrant Generation.
Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1990.

This book for the advanced high school reader examines the experiences of young Jewish immigrant women in the garment industry, showing the contrast between their lives in the small, tradition-bound Jewish towns of Eastern Europe (the shtetls) and the greater degree of independence they experienced through the world of work, trade unions, and leisure in the United States.


Kerber, Linda K., and Jane Sherron De Hart, eds. Women's America: Refocusing the Past.
3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

This comprehensive sampling of documents and articles in the field of American women's history provides a theoretical framework for examining how reproduction, economics, politics, and changing ideologies have interacted since the colonial period.


Kessler-Harris, Alice. Out to Work: A History of Wage-earning Women in the United States.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

A history of working women from colonial times to the present suitable for advanced high school students. Goldman is mentioned in relation to women's persistent attempts to achieve both sexual and economic independence.


Lerner, Gerda, ed. The Female Experience: An American Documentary. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1977.

These primary sources from the colonial period through the 1970s document issues of prevailing importance to women. Particularly relevant to this unit are the sections on women in industrial employment, organizing women workers, women in politics, and a woman's right to control her own body.


O'Neill, William. Everyone Was Brave: The Rise and Fall of Feminism in America. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.

Approximately 350-page history of feminism in America from Victorian times through the 1960s. Some leading feminists, including Goldman, are not mentioned, but this remains a good reference for analysis of social institutions like the family, the school, and the church and the effects of their policies on women.


Papachristou, Judith. Women Together: A History in Documents of the Women's Movement in the United States.
New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976.

A collection of important documents tracking the women's movement in the United States from the 1830s through its resurgence in the 1970s. Included are speeches, reports, supportive and critical newspaper accounts, court trials, manifestos, and first-person accounts.


Sanders, Beverly. Women in the Progressive Era: 1890-1920. (Women in American History Series.)
Boston: Education Development Center, 1979.

This booklet is one in a series of four that narrate women's lives and accomplishments during particular periods of American history. Written for the secondary level student, the resource contains inquiry questions and activities and includes a chapter on women's contributions to arts and letters.


Wertheimer, Barbara Mayer. We Were There: The Story of Working Women in America. New York: Pantheon Books, 1977.

Focusing on the role of women as workers through American history, this book offers richly detailed information on the wage-earning woman from 1886 to 1910 and on the participation of women in the emerging trade unions between 1900 and 1914.

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