The Making of America II was a Digital Library Federation project to create a proposed digital library object standard by encoding defined descriptive, administrative and structural metadata, along with the primary content, inside a digital library object. The preliminary digital object "standard" that came out of the project is now itself obsolete--but served as the starting point for the development of the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS), which is currently maintained by the Library of Congress. The original documentation leading to the development of the MOA2.DTD is maintained here for its historical interest. However, working examples of "MOA2" objects are no longer being maintained, and visitors to this site who are interested in an actively and widely used XML standard for encoding digital materials are referred to the METS website.

A standard digital library object will promote:

  • Interoperability 
The DTD can be used to define a transfer syntax to move digital objects between repositories, between a repository and a viewer, etc.
  • Scalability 
A standard object encoding will allow digital library architectures to be built on scalable digital object technologies (OOD, the JAVA Enterprise Model, RMI, CORBA, etc.), as opposed to gluing a digital library together with CGI scripts and HTML
  • Digital Preservation  
Archiving and migrating well defined objects to new technologies will certainly be easier than dealing with many proprietary encodings (e.g., Berkeleyís digital object encoding for a book, Stanfordís encoding, etc.)The cornerstone of the MoA II effort an XML DTD that defines the digital objectís elements and encoding. The project has also developed a relational database that allows a library to capture the metadata, a program that reads the database and automatically creates the XML encoded digital objects, a repository manager that provides distributed network access to the objects (via RMI) and a viewer that displays MoA II objects from the repository. 

The MoA II DTD and Software

The University of California at Berkeley's Library is producing a variety of tools to support the capture of administrative and structural metadata during the creation of digitized archival materials, the transmission of administrative and structural metadata regarding such materials, and the display of digitized materials to archive users. The core around which all of the tools revolve, of course, is the MoA II DTD itself, which is introduced with a tutorial and sample encoded document below.  To facilitate the production and maintenance of MOA II XML objects, the UCB Library has developed both an MoA II database that can be used to gather the descriptive, administrative and structural metadata pertaining to the library's digitized archival materials, and a Java program that can query this database, and automatically generate MoA II DTD compliant XML objects.  To enable library patrons to view the  MoA II  XML objects generated from the database, the Library has implemented an MoA II Viewer and Repository Manager.  The following pages provide information regarding the MoA II DTD and the tools that support its use.

MoA II White Paper: Version 2 (September 15, 1998)

Note: The project has made many enhancements to the DTD and software since this paper was written. However, it does provide the theoretical base for the projectís goals and implementation.

The Making of America (MoA II) Testbed Project is a Digital Library Federation (DLF) coordinated, multi-phase endeavor that proposes to investigate important issues in the creation of an integrated, but distributed, digital library of archival materials (i.e., digitized surrogates of primary source materials found in archives and special collections). This paper focuses on the need to develop standards for creating and encoding digital archival objects (e.g., a digitized photograph, a digital book or diary, etc.) that will populate the distributed repositories.

MoA II Proposals

Various Papers and Presentations

Document maintained at by Rick Beaubien.
Last update October 10, 2001. Rick Beaubien: