The Regents establish an anti-communist
policy for the University of California.
II is coming to an end. At the Yalta Conference Churchill, Roosevelt,
and Stalin agree on how the post-war world should be organized.
As the Soviet Union starts to violate some of the agreements,
particularly in regard to the establishment of new governments
in Eastern Europe, the "Cold War" will begin.
Delegates from many nations gather in San Francisco and the United
Nations is founded (there is some sentiment that the new headquarters
of the organization could be in San Francisco or even in Berkeley,
but New York is ultimately chosen).
The United States explodes the first test atomic bomb at Alamogordo
New Mexico. The civilian side of the development of atomic weapons
has occurred under the management of the University of California,
drawing heavily on the faculty, researchers, and expertise of
the "Radiation Laboratory" at Berkeley. Berkeley Physics
Professor Robert Oppenheimer is in charge of the civilian researchers
headquartered in New Mexico at Los Alamos, which will continue,
after the War, as a UC-managed weapons and energy research and
The United States drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Japan
surrenders on August 15, bringing World War II to an end.
as Japanese occupation collapses, civil war resumes between Nationalist
and Communist factions. Yugoslavia becomes a one-party communist
state under Tito.
in Greece, continuing through 1949. Communist-backed Greek forces
operate out of Yugoslavia. Civil war continues in China.
Winston Churchill delivers his famous "Iron
Curtain" speech at Westminster College in Missouri, warning
about Soviet expansion.
American President Harry Truman establishes
the "Truman Doctrine" stating as policy worldwide American
opposition to communism. The policy is coupled with Congressional
action to send military and economic aid to Turkey and Greece,
where civil wars are underway.
writing under a pseudonym in Foreign Affairs, promulgates the
goal of "containment" of the Soviet Union, which becomes
a cornerstone of American foreign policy.
Truman initiates loyalty oaths for Federal employees, and the
use of such oaths spreads rapidly through public and private agencies.
Many Americans, fearful of the spread of communism, start or support
what are later called "witch hunts" for suspected communists
in American society.
Plan is instituted, providing massive American economic and military
aid to western Europe to rebuild war damaged countries and strengthen
continues in Greece, but American and British aid, including military
advisers, starts to erode the advance of communist forces. The
Chinese Communists make military gains against the Nationalists.
In Hungary, a short-lived democratic government ends as Soviet
occupation forces install a one-party communist government.
Intelligence Agency is created in the United States.
make decisive gains, defeating American-supported Nationalist
Truman is re-elected in a four-way race against Republican Thomas
Dewey, Progressive Henry Wallace, and conservative southern "Dixiecrat"
Strom Thurmond. American diplomat Alger Hiss is accused of having
been a communist spy in the 1930s. Over the next two years this
becomes one of the high profile cases of the American anti-communist
Czechoslovakian government is overthrown by a Soviet-backed communist
coup. Popular Czech democratic Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk dies
from a fall from a window; it is widely believed he was murdered.
The Committee on Academic Freedom
and Tenure of the American Association of University Professors
makes the following statement (published in 1949 in the AAUP's
Bulletin). ". . .So long as the Communist Party in the United
States is a legal party, affiliation with that party in and of
itself should not be regarded as a justifiable reason for exclusion
from the academic profession." This statement is later cited
by opponents of UC's loyalty oath.
Compiled by Steve Finacom