I. Introduction: The Idea, the Place, and the People

II. Open Competition, Antwerp, 1898

III. Final Competition, San Francisco, 1899

IV. Bénard's New Project, 1900

V. The Howard/Wheeler Campus, 1901-24

VI. The Phoebe Apperson Hearst Gym Memorial, 1922-30

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II. Open Competition, Antwerp, 1898

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The International Competition for the Phoebe Hearst Architectural Plan for the University of California, as it was officially called, was held in two phases. It began with a contest in Antwerp that was open to any designer living anywhere in the world. One hundred five entries were received before the July 1, 1898, deadline for this preliminary round. Almost all of the designs reflected the revered academic teachings-the grand axial planning and the lucid expression of studied masses and spaces-of the architectural section of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. This, in fact, had been the intention of the writers of the competition's program, who envisioned a monumental, classical "City of Learning" in Berkeley. Eleven architects emerged as finalists: three from France, one each from Austria and Switzerland, and six from the eastern United States. No submissions from California survived the first stage.


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