I. Introduction: The Idea, the Place, and the People

II. Open Competition, Antwerp, 1898

III. Final Competition, San Francisco, 1899

IV. Bénard's New Project, 1900

V. The Howard/Wheeler Campus, 1901-24

VI. The Phoebe Apperson Hearst Gym Memorial, 1922-30

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V. The Howard/Wheeler Campus, 1901-24

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Howard, who had been educated at M.I.T. and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, moved from New York City to Berkeley, where he went about his task of supervising the construction of the Hearst Memorial Mining Building (whose design and placement had been the cause of the competition in the first place). He began making a new plan that would reflect the basic ideas of Bénard, which within a few years had become quite his own, as seen in the plaster model of 1905 and the master plans of 1908 and 1914. In the meantime, working with the University's new President, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, Howard designed more than twenty buildings, clad with granite and, when budgets were stretched, with shingles or stucco. Mrs. Hearst paid his salary as Professor of Architecture, and by 1904 he had established the first school of architecture west of St. Louis. The most recognizable symbols of the Berkeley campus, the gateway and bell tower paid for by Jane K. Sather, were his most popular inventions. The Doe Library, its north façade a perfect exercise in architecture parlante, was his masterpiece.

Under Howard's direction the campus evolved from the Victorian "Athens of the West" to a more Italianate setting. It reflected the popular dream of realizing a new Mediterranean world in California, inspired by the weather, the scenery and the need to combine local pride with national presumptions.


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Last updated 10/09/06.

Center for Studies in Higher Education Berkeley Art Museum Pacific Film Archive