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Berkeley: Departments and Programs


A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z 

Cell Physiology
Celtic Studies Program
Chemical Engineering
Chemistry
Chicano Studies Program
City and Regional Planning
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Classics
Cognitive Science Program
College Writing Program
Comparative Biochemistry Program
Comparative Literature
Computer Science Division
Creative Writing Program
Criminology

Cell Physiology
Cell Physiology came into being on July 1, 1961 as a new department in the College of Agriculture at Berkeley. It was organized as an administrative unit to foster research in selected areas of cellular physiology and biochemistry that are basic to agriculture. The research program of the department was concerned mainly with bioenergetics as it applies to photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and metabolism. The research was conducted at a fundamental level without any special responsibility for a particular species or crop.

The department was originally staffed in its entirety by personnel formerly affiliated with the Department of Soils and Plant Nutrition but in 1965 had only two staff members in that category. The staff included six full-time academic appointees and two full-time nonacademic appointees in regular, University-budgeted positions. In addition, the department had a number of academic and nonacademic appointees who were supported by extramural grants. All of the regular academic appointees carried concurrent appointments in the Agricultural Experiment Station and some of them had few or no teaching duties.

The department was given no responsibility for classroom instruction. However, it was authorized to offer a course for graduate research, Cell Physiology 299, which was a vehicle for accepting qualified graduate students for individual programs of research and study that led to the M.S. and the Ph.D. degrees in three interdepartmental graduate curricula: biophysics, comparative biochemistry, and plant physiology.

The main research contributions of the personnel were in the area of the biochemistry of the energy conversion process in photosynthesis. They discovered photosynthetic phosphorylation and reconstructed complete photosynthesis outside the living cell. This work received international recognition and attracted to the department postdoctoral fellows from the United States and overseas who constitute, on a rotating basis, a permanent component of the research personnel of the department. On returning to their home countries, many of the postdoctoral fellows were given new opportunities to continue the research in photosynthesis in which they were trained. Some of them became university professors or directors of institutes in such centers as Goettingen, London, and Madrid. source

Cell and Developmental Biology is now a division in the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology. See also Molecular and Cell Biology.

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Celtic Studies Program
There is no history currently available for this program.

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Chemical Engineering
Chemical Engineering began by that name at Berkeley in the 1940s, but had been anticipated from the time the University was founded. This area of knowledge underlies all large-scale alteration of chemical composition by reactions or separations as conducted for socio-economic purposes. Frederick Cottrell, the University's first true chemical engineer, invented electrostatic dust-precipitation around 1906. In 1912, Gilbert N. Lewis, as incoming dean of the College of Chemistry, instituted a chemical technology major, subsequently directed by Merle Randall. In 1942, Donald McLaughlin, Wendell Latimer, Randall, Llewellyn M. K. Boelter, and others formed a "graduate group" to offer the M.S. degree in chemical engineering.

September, 1946 marked the start of formal undergraduate instruction, offered in the College (and Department) of Chemistry with complementary work in the College of Engineering. Philip Schutz, the program's first unofficial chairman, LeRoy Bromley, and Charles Wilke formed the charter group. Succumbing soon to a tragic illness, Schutz was followed by Theodore Vermeulen. In 1947, this group was joined by Donald Hanson and Charles Tobias and, somewhat later, by David Lyon of the Low Temperature Laboratory. Appointees still in the department as of the mid-1960s, in the order of their arrival, were Eugene Petersen, John Prausnitz, Charles Oldershaw, E. Morse Blue, Alan Foss, Otto Redlich, Simon Goren, Judson King, Edward Grens, John Newman, Richard Ayen, Robert Merrill, and Michael Williams.

The new undergraduate curriculum, paced by a succession of sympathetic deans (Latimer, Joel H. Hildebrand, Kenneth S. Pitzer, Robert E. Connick) rapidly gained recognition. A series of hard-won milestones followed: formal approval of programs leading to the Ph.D. degree (1947) and B.S. degree (1948); a change in departmental name to chemistry and chemical engineering (1949); creation of a subdepartmental division with Vermeulen as chairman (1952), succeeded by Wilke in 1953; national accreditation (1952); creation of a separate department (1957); and occupancy of Gilman Hall (1963) as a center for this burgeoning program. In 1963, Hanson became chairman.

The undergraduate program prepared a student for diverse applied-science functions. About two-thirds of B.S. graduates went directly into industrial employment, the remainder to graduate study in various technical fields. Undergraduate majors held steadily at an average near 45 per year. Between 1946-and the mid-1960s, 191 master's and 74 doctoral degrees were awarded. In 1964-65 alone, 29 M.S. and 17 Ph.D. candidates completed their work, giving chemical engineering one of the highest ratios of graduate degrees to full-time faculty members.

Teaching and research alike in chemical engineering focused upon quantitative description of the equilibria and rates for multicomponent multiphase chemical systems, with respect to molecular transport, physics of fluids, heat transmission, electrolytic phenomena, and chemical reactions and catalysis. Research collaboration occurred with other departments and agencies, including the Forest Products Research Laboratory, the Sea Water Conversion Laboratory, and the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory with Glenn T. Seaborg, Isadore Perlman, and Leo Brewer. The department had significant financial assistance from governmental agencies, Petroleum Research Fund, Research Corporation, and companies such as Standard Oil of California, Dow Chemical, DuPont, Stauffer, Sun Oil, Esso Research, and Jersey Production. Also, a student chapter of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers was sponsored by that institute's northern California section. source

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Chemistry
See Colleges and Schools, College of Chemistry.

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Chicano Studies Program
There is no history currently available for this program.

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City and Regional Planning
An independent Department of City and Regional Planning was recommended and officially created in 1948. T. J. Kent, Jr., was appointed as its first faculty member and chairman and in the spring of 1949, a two-year graduate curriculum was approved. That summer a new degree, master of city planning (M.C.P.), was also authorized. The first full group, 14 graduate students, entered in September, 1949.

During the 1950s, the students entering each year numbered from 12 to 20; in 1965, some 30 students entered the M.C.P. degree program annually, with another six to ten graduate students admitted without reference to a degree. During the first 15 years, the curriculum focused on urban physical planning, particularly on the preparation and carrying into effect of an urban general plan. Effective in September, 1964 under a completely revised curriculum, each student elected one of three emphases: urban physical planning; housing, renewal, and development; or planning and programming for urban systems. The first most nearly followed the earlier curriculum; the latter two reflected institutional expansions in the practice and theory of city planning.

A Ph.D. program to educate outstanding persons for mature responsibilities in teaching and research was approved in October, 1965. The program was envisaged as highly individualized, reflecting each student's interest and the capacity and interests of the faculty of this department and of other departments within the University.

In the mid-1960s, the department offered courses required of all undergraduate students in architecture and most undergraduate students in landscape architecture. Additional elective courses, both graduate and undergraduate, were offered for students from other departments.

For the first ten years, the department was administratively independent. Under the general supervision of a campus-wide Faculty Group in City and Regional Planning appointed by the chairman of the Graduate Council, the chairman of the department reported directly to the chancellor. With the creation of the College of Environmental Design in 1959, the department became a constituent unit, its chairman and faculty reporting through the dean of the college and the dean of the Graduate Division. The college, quite naturally, provided opportunities -- some yet to be developed -- for extra-departmental programs, such as a program in urban design. In the mid-1960s, it was hoped that a regional planning program would be shaped within the near future, with several departments outside of the college standing to make strong contributions.

An Institute of Urban and Regional Development was approved and came into existence in July, 1963; it was designed to reflect campus-wide interests. A new unit within the institute, the Center for Planning and Development Research, was simultaneously created and its senior members were drawn largely from the faculty of this department. A second unit, the Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics (reorganized from the former Real Estate Research Program) was closely related to a faculty group within the School of Business Administration. source

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Civil and Environmental Engineering
Civil Engineering was one of the six original colleges of the University; its inclusion was in accordance with the University's purposes as a land-grant institution. From 1869 to 1930, it operated as the College of Civil Engineering; in 1930, civil engineering and irrigation (which had been established in 1901) became departments of a newly established College of Engineering. The two then became separate divisions of the Department of Engineering in 1947, a combined Division of Civil Engineering and Irrigation in 1951, and finally a combined Department of Civil Engineering in 1958. In 1958, Divisions of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering, Structural Engineering and Structural Mechanics, and Transportation Engineering (recently created under separate organization) were established in the department. Thus, the 1965 organization of the Department of Civil Engineering incorporated not only civil engineering as originally established, but also irrigation and transportation, as well as hydraulics (which until 1958 had been administered by mechanical engineering). Closely associated with civil engineering was the Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, founded by legislative act in 1947.

Enrollment in civil engineering was fairly constant, averaging about 50 students a semester in the early decades of the University's existence, but a few years after the turn of the century enrollment tripled. It then grew slowly to about 250 students in 1930, increased to 400 in 1940, and was 500 in 1957, just before the lower division was transferred to general engineering. At that time there were about 300 upper division and 100 graduate students in civil engineering; in 1965 there were about 200 upper division and 300 graduate students. The faculty grew correspondingly to a number of about 40 professors and ten lecturers, plus the necessary teaching assistants.

In the early years the principal instruction was in undergraduate courses in surveying, mapping, properties of materials, structural design, and structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, and water-supply and sewerage systems. By the mid-1960s, there were some 50 upper division courses and a larger number of graduate courses, with elective groups in construction engineering, hydraulic and water resources engineering, sanitary engineering, soil mechanics and foundation engineering, structural engineering, structural mechanics, and surveying-geodesy-photogrammetry.

As in other branches of engineering, laboratory work was an important feature of teaching and research in civil engineering. There were organized laboratories with staff and facilities in the fields of bituminous materials and pavements, engineering (construction) materials, hydraulics, photogrammetry, sanitary chemistry, soil mechanics, and structures. The facilities were located on the Berkeley campus and at the Richmond Field Station, a large proportion of the six engineering buildings on the campus being devoted to laboratories. For many years civil engineering conducted an annual summer surveying camp, essentially a field laboratory, but in 1943 the camp was discontinued because of war conditions. It was not reinstated, in large part because of the shift in emphasis from manipulative skills to analysis, design, and research. source

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Classics
Instruction in Latin and Greek was prominent in the curriculum of 1869-70, the first academic year of the University. Martin Kellogg, later seventh President of the University (1893-99), taught all classes as professor of ancient languages, having been professor of Latin and mathematics in the College of California since 1860. His was one of the first 12 appointments that the Regents made to the University faculty. In the first three years, Kellogg, as the only teacher of classical languages, was prepared to teach six or seven classes a term, although, since the University had few students in these years, some of the advanced courses may have had no students. But as total student enrollment increased, Kellogg's classes grew in size, since Greek and Latin (in specified courses) were required for the A.B. degree. In 1872, George Woodbury Bunnell was added to the faculty as assistant professor of Latin and Greek, becoming professor of the Greek language and literature in 1875; from 1876, Kellogg's title was professor of the Latin language and literature. In 1873, Kellogg and Bunnell were assisted by an instructor in Latin and ancient history; in 1875, by two instructors in Latin and Greek. From 1875 until 1890, four men (in some years three) taught classical languages and subjects. A fifth man, Isaac Flagg, joined the staff in 1890. In 1891, Leon J. Richardson was appointed assistant in Latin, beginning an active service of 47 years.

In 1894, the duties of the Presidency took Kellogg from his classes; he returned to teaching as professor emeritus in 1900, conducting classes until his death in 1903. He was succeeded as professor of Latin by William A. Merrill. Bunnell, who retired in 1894, was succeeded by Edward B. Clapp. From 1896, the Announcement of Courses shows separate Departments of Greek and Latin, of which Clapp and Merrill were chairmen for many years. Greek and Latin remained separate departments until 1937, when they were combined in the Department of Classics under the chairmanship of Ivan M. Linforth. Sanskrit, which had been a separate department from 1906 under Arthur W. Ryder, entered the classics department in 1940 with the appointment of Murray B. Emeneau as assistant professor of Sanskrit and general linguistics and remained there until 1965, when Sanskrit instruction was transferred to the linguistics department. Emeneau's courses in linguistics had already been transferred from classics to the newly formed linguistics department in 1953. In 1965-66, the classics faculty had 15 members, not counting six teaching assistants.

Before 1880, Kellogg and Bunnell gave lecture courses in Greek and Roman history, geography, mythology, and archaeology. In the 1880s, Kellogg lectured on linguistics and comparative grammar (under the heading of Classical or Comparative Philology). About 1920, the Greek department increased its offerings of lecture courses (requiring no knowledge of Greek) in Greek literature and civilization. In 1965, the classics department, in addition to a program in Greek and Latin language and literature, offered 20 lecture courses on classical subjects, some of which enrolled from 100 to 500 students.

The announcement for 1891-92 shows a graduate course in Latin; two appear in 1893-94. After that date, the number of graduate courses steadily increased, until they formed about 20 per cent of the program in by the mid-1960s. These were advanced courses and seminars in Greek and Latin authors, archaeology, epigraphy, and paleography, in which classical scholars and teachers receive their training.

Significant for classics at Berkeley was the founding of the Sather Professorship of Classical Literature, by bequest of Jane K. Sather, which brought a distinguished classicist each year to the Berkeley campus, where they resided and lectured for a term. source

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Cognitive Science Program
There is no history currently available for this program.

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College Writing Program
There is no history currently available for this program.

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Comparative Biochemistry Program
There is no history currently available for this program.

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Comparative Literature
There is no history currently available for this department.

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Computer Science Division
There is no history currently available for this division.

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Creative Writing Program
There is no history currently available for this program.

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Criminology
See Colleges and Schools, School of Criminology.


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