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Berkeley: Departments and Programs

Earth and Planetary Science
There is no history currently available for this department.

East Asian Languages and Cultures
The first 30 years of the existence of the department (founded as Oriental Languages in 1896) represent essentially a story of the Agassiz Professorship of Oriental Languages and Literature, a chair endowed in 1872 by the forethought of Edward Tompkins, one of the University's founding fathers. Throughout the period, the three successive holders of the chair, John Fryer (1896-1914), Alfred Forke (1914-17), and Edward T. William (1918-27), directed, as sole professors, a curriculum of instruction in modern and classical Chinese with the help of temporary assistants.

A significant exception among the latter was the appointment of Yoshi Kuno, an alumnus of the University, who, beginning in 1901 and continuing until his retirement as assistant professor in 1935, developed a parallel curriculum in Japanese, thus laying the foundations of the University's distinction in both Chinese and Japanese studies.

The East Asian aspects of various humanistic and social science disciplines were then scantily represented on the campus. Therefore the three Agassiz professors felt obliged to offer a variety of popular courses on the history, commerce, diplomatic relations, foreign interests, and beliefs of East Asian countries. This burden on their time doubtless affected the fuller development of purely philological and literary studies.

The Agassiz professorship remained unfilled in the interval from 1927 to 1935, and the department entered into a period of reorganization designed to enforce standards of teaching and research commensurate with those prevailing in well-established fields of comparable academic endeavor. Under the guidance of Professor William Popper, the reorganization was successfully completed (1932-35), shaping the distinctive contours of the department's corporate personality of the next generation.

In 1935, Ferdinand D. Lessing became the fourth Agassiz professor. An expansion of offerings followed; courses in Manchu, Mongolian, and Tibetan were inaugurated, graduate studies enlarged, and the junior personnel stabilized. The coming of World War II found the staff well prepared to participate in a singular way in intensive language programs necessitated by the national effort.

The efficient Boulder Navy School (organized in Berkeley by three members of the department's Japanese staff), and the then unique offerings in Annamese (Vietnamese), Thai, and Mongolian conducted on the campus deserve mention.

Following the war, the staff played a not insignificant role in fostering University policies toward a broader coverage of East Asian subjects in other disciplines. The department's faculty was greatly enlarged and by the mid-1960s numbered 12 full-time members, each a specialist in some field of East Asian philology. Korean and Indonesian curricula were successfully developed. The department proved receptive to the incorporation in its work of modern trends in linguistics without prejudice to its established philological and literary principles, methods, and ideals. In 1952, the linguist Yuen R. Chao became the fifth Agassiz professor.

The research work of the Department of Oriental Languages was enhanced in 1947 by the expansion of its departmental collection into the East Asiatic Library with a scholarly and efficient staff.

After 1932, graduate students generally outnumbered undergraduate majors. By the mid-1960s, the department had awarded 22 Ph.D. and 37 M.A. degrees; most of the recipients pursued academic careers. source

East European Studies Program
There is no history currently available for this program.

Economics
The term "Political Economy" first appeared in the UC Register, 1871-1872, which announced a series of lectures on the subject by members of the faculty. In 1875, Bernard Moses was appointed professor of history. A year later his title was changed to professor of history and political economy. From 1876 to 1890, Professor Moses taught two undergraduate courses in political economy, which were described as "a critical study of the history of economic thought" and "a general view of the principles and laws of Political Economy in its present position."

During the 1890s, additional faculty appointments were made and course offerings were expanded to include Economic Theory, Economic History, Theories of Social Progress, Economic Condition of Laborers in England, Finance and Taxation, Banking and Currency, and Statistics. The first graduate courses were offered in 1897. These various courses appeared in the Register first under history and political economy and later under history and political science.

The Department of Economics was established in 1902, with Adolph C. Miller as its first chairman; his staff included Carl C. Plehn, Wesley C. Mitchell, Lincoln Hutchinson, and Ernest C. Moore. In its first year (1902-03), the department offered 11 undergraduate courses in economics, five in commerce, and two in charities and corrections. In 1940, a small number of professional courses in social work were transferred to the Department of Social Welfare, and in 1942, the commerce courses were transferred to the business administration department.

By 1964-65, the faculty of the department had increased to 33, and course offerings to 32 undergraduate and 41 graduate courses, plus honors, special study and research courses. Two hundred and ninety undergraduates were majoring in economics; 278 Ph.D. and 50 M.A. degree candidates were at various stages of graduate work. For the spring semester of 1965, enrollment in undergraduate courses was 2,526, with 644 in graduate courses.

Between 1902 and the mid-1960s, the University awarded about 316 Ph.D. and 795 M.A. or M.S. degrees to graduate students in economics.

Associated with the department was the Econometrics Workshop, a facility for student and faculty training and research in the application of mathematical and statistical tools to economics. It included a unique collection of research materials and two computing laboratories with a time-sharing link to the Computer Center and the Management Science Laboratory.

In the mid-sixties, the department participated in various technical assistance programs in cooperation with governmental agencies and private foundations. After 1956, the Ford Foundation made substantial grants to be used to strengthen teaching and research in economics at the University of Indonesia. In 1961, the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations made grants to carry out a five-year technical assistance project in Greece, to establish a Center for Economic Research in Athens, and to support research of American economists dealing with the Greek economy, as well as to provide training and research facilities for both Greek and American graduate students. In 1965, the Department of Economics contracted with the Agency for International Development to provide technical assistance over a five-year period to Brazil for long-term economic planning. source

Education
See Colleges and Schools, School of Education.

Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
In 1875, when President Daniel Coit Gilman appointed Frederick G. Hesse to head the College of Mechanics, only North Hall and South Hall had been built. Hesse started his work in a single room in North Hall, giving lectures only, since no facilities as yet existed for laboratory or shop work. The first student was graduated from the College of Mechanics in 1874. In 1878, the first Mining and Mechanic Arts Building (later renamed the Civil Engineering Building) was completed. In 1893, Hesse selected Clarence Linus Cory to be assistant professor of mechanical and electrical engineering. Immediately, Cory, Joseph A. Sladky, superintendent of the machine shops, and Joseph Nisbet LeConte, instructor in mechanical engineering, concentrated on plans for electrical laboratories in the new Mechanics Building, then under construction. Upon its completion in 1894, Cory and LeConte, largely with student help, installed electrical equipment surpassed by few, if any, universities in the country. Research started immediately.

In 1901, Cory was made dean of the College of Mechanics and for more than a generation was recognized as a farsighted and vigorous leader in his profession. Cory Hall was named in his honor. After his retirement in 1930, the Colleges of Mechanics and Civil Engineering were combined to form the College of Engineering, containing the Department of Civil Engineering and the Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. In 1931, the latter department was split into the separate Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering. In 1942, the Colleges of Engineering and Mining merged to form a single administrative unit, the College of Engineering, and a single academic unit, the Department of Engineering, with the various fields, such as electrical engineering, known as divisions. In 1958, the Division of Electrical Engineering again became the Department of Electrical Engineering.

The original electrical engineering curriculum was rigidly prescribed, including chemistry, physics, mathematics, English, German, shop work in machine tools and pattern making, mechanical drawing, descriptive geometry, analytic mechanics, kinematics, strength of materials, thermodynamics, hydraulics, surveying, and electrical machines. Until the mid-1920s, this curriculum changed very little, except for the elimination of the language requirements and their replacement by free electives. Then the growing importance of communications and electronics forced the elimination of the shop courses and surveying and the establishment of power and communications options. Scientific and technological developments, such as automation, computers, solid-state, quantum-electronic and micro-electronic devices, and the growing importance of bioelectronics, plasmas, magnetohydrodynamics, and sophisticated systems for transmission and analysis of information and for optimal control, resulted in the establishment of four options in electrical engineering, allowing the student to follow an integrated sequence of courses in his major field of interest and still find time for cultural courses.

Approximately 3,800 B.S. degrees, 850 M.S. degrees, and more than 150 Ph.D. degrees were granted in electrical engineering by 1965, with 91 Ph.D. degrees awarded between 1960-1965. In 1965, full-time graduate enrollment in electrical engineering was 340, with undergraduates (juniors and seniors) numbering 466. The electrical engineering faculty, excluding teaching fellows and research assistants, numbered 76. The large increase in graduate study and research was largely due to the establishment of the Electronics Research Laboratory, which handled research contracts with the federal and state governments and with private industry for the department. In 1965, over 200 of the electrical engineering graduate students received substantial financial aid from fellowships or teaching or research assistantships. source

Endocrinology
There is no history currently available for this department.

Energy and Resources Group
There is no history currently available for this program.

Engineering Science Program
There is no history currently available for this program.

English
The department at Berkeley was inaugurated in 1869, with one professor, William M. Swinton, who was also librarian and secretary of the Academic Senate. He was succeeded in 1874 by Edward Rowland Sill, a minor poet and essayist; after Sill left in 1882, the professor was Albert S. Cook, a distinguished philologist, who departed in 1888. These gentlemen were from time to time assisted in their work by graduate assistants, of whom the best known is Josiah Royce, class of 1875.

The subjects taught were the history and structure of the English language, the history of English literature and rhetoric. Much of the effort of the department was devoted to instruction in elementary composition, a subject detested by the mass of the undergraduates. English rated very low in the list of subjects in which students could be interested.

A shift in the department came with thearrival of Charles Mills Gayley (1858-1932) in 1889; his first task was to reorganize the department in accord with the expansion of the University, made possible by the passage of the Vrooman Act of 1887. He had at the beginning only two other men on the staff, William Dallam Armes and Cornelius Beach Bradley, who was the first man in the department to rise through the ranks from instructor to professor. In the reorganization of the department the number of courses was increased from 13 to 19; in 1891 American literature was first introduced as a subject of study. Specialists in various fields were called. The first graduate instruction was offered in 1892, though it was not until 1906 that the first Ph.D. in English was awarded--to Benjamin P. Kurtz, who also remained with the department throughout his entire career.

As of the mid-1960s, the broad outline of the structure of the department and its curriculum were much as Gayley left them. The freshman course in literature and composition was largely a service course, as most of the students enrolled did not intend to study English as a major subject. Many of the upper-division courses, especially those in the great figures of English literature, were attended by non-majors. The curriculum still centered its interest on the most important authors; it still emphasized the historical and critical approach.

The number of students in the department must have been very small in the early years of the University; no figures are available. In the spring of 1965, there were 723 undergraduate majors in the department and 429 graduate students. The number of Ph.D. degrees awarded by the department in 1965 was 13. The discrepancy between the large number of students and relatively small number of degrees was explained by the fact that the department prepared a very large number of teachers for high school and junior college teaching in which the advanced degree was not required.

The staff also expanded greatly. In 1900, there were eight professors and instructors; in 1925, 20; the department in the mid-1960s had over 85 members. Expansion of staff naturally brought diversity of interests, resulting in the creation of new departments. The first of these was Slavic, founded in 1901 by George R. Noyes, who came as instructor in English and Slavic. The interest of Alexis F. Lange in pedagogy was influential in the creation of the Department of Education. Martin Flaherty, who began as instructor in rhetoric, founded the Department of Public Speaking (later Speech) in 1915; Charles Raymond founded the Department of Journalistic Studies (later Journalism) in 1937. By the 1960's, Travis Bogard was the chairman of the Department of Dramatic Art, begun in 1941, and comparative literature (Alain Renoir) was on its way to becoming a department by the 1960s. source

Entomology and Parasitology
Entomological research and teaching in the University of California had scattered origins at Berkeley. Eugene W. Hilgard conducted research on grape phylloxera and codling moth as early as 1875 and lectured on economic entomology. James J. Rivers, curator of the University Museum from 1881 to 1895, was also active in entomology. As entomological problems increased, research and teaching in economic entomology expanded. In the 1880s, special instruction in entomology was begun by Charles H. Dwinelle and Edward J. Wickson. Although not formally trained as entomologists, these early experimentalists responded vigorously to the problems of the state and became deeply involved in entomological research.

Entomology as a separate field was first recognized with the appointment in May, 1891, of Charles W. Woodworth, the first trained entomologist to assume teaching duties in California. He was instrumental in the retention of entomological instruction in the College of Agriculture and was responsible for the early economic orientation of research. For 29 years, Woodworth headed entomological activities. The title, Division of Entomology, first came into common use about 1902 as a unit within the Department of Agriculture. During Woodworth's tenure, the division greatly expanded with the appointment of key men, who were to guide the development of entomology for the next half century. In 1920, William B. Herms, professor of parasitology, succeeded Woodworth as chairman, and the name of the division was changed to entomology and parasitology. Chairmen since 1943 were Edward O. Essig (1943-51), E. Gorton Linsley (1951-59), and Ray F. Smith, who was appointed in 1959. In 1952, the division became a separate department.

During the Woodworth regime, a few students graduated in entomology, and several received the M.S. degree. The first Ph.D. in entomology was awarded in 1924. In the next 40 years, 238 Ph.D. degrees were conferred in entomology and parasitology. In the 1930s, the activities of the division expanded with increased numbers of students and a heavier emphasis on basic fields. Following World War II, the department again expanded. The initiation of research and teaching in plant nematology, insect pathology, and acarology, and the initiation of the California Insect Survey were major achievements.

In 1923, research in biological control was organized in a separate administrative unit with the creation of the Division of Beneficial Insect Investigations. The name was changed to the Division of Biological Control in 1946, and it became a department in 1952. The Laboratory of Insect Pathology, established in 1945 as a unit within the Division of Biological Control, became a separate research department in 1960. In January of 1963, the administration of entomology and parasitology was again restructured. The three departments of biological control, insect pathology, and entomology and parasitology were combined within the framework of a single new Department of Entomology and Parasitology with four research divisions. Major revision of both undergraduate and graduate curricula in the 1960s provided greater breadth to training, and significant expansion has occurred in forest entomology, biological control, pathology, systematic entomology, and parasitology. source

The department no longer exists as such, but is now the Insect Biology program of the Department of Environmental Science, Policy & Management.

Environmental Design
See Colleges and Schools, College of Environmental Design.

Environmental Economics and Policy
There is no history currently available for this department.

Environmental Health Sciences Program
There is no history currently available for this program.

Environmental Planning
See Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning.

Environmental Science, Policy, and Management
There is no history currently available for this department.

Environmental Sciences Program
There is no history currently available for this program.

Epidemiology/Biostatistics Program
There is no history currently available for this program.

Ethnic Studies
There is no history currently available for this department.

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Last updated 06/18/04.