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East Asian Languages and Cultures
Economics
Education, Divison of
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Emergency Medicine
Engineering
English
Entomology
Environmental Design
Environmental Horticulture
Environmental Science and Policy
Environmental Toxicology
Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine
Evolution and Ecology
Exercise Science

East Asian Languages and Cultures
The present Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures dates back to 1964, when Professor Benjamin Wallacker first offered Chinese language courses at UC Davis. Wallacker, a sinologist with wide-ranging scholarly interests, had his academic home in the Department of Anthropology, which housed the first program in Chinese and Japanese language. Eric Liu, a specialist in Mandarin, joined him through the second half of the 1960s. Eiko Ihara Taylor taught modern Japanese courses and assisted Olof Lidin, a specialist in classical Japanese. Years later, Taylor founded an internship program that selects up to 14 undergraduates to teach English each year in Japanese orphanages. Marian Ury replaced Lidin in 1970 as the Japanese literature specialist but continued to make important contributions to the program even after her position was transferred to Comparative Literature in 1975.

By the late 1970s a Program for the Study of East Asian Culture had been established, with specialists in modern Chinese and Japanese Donald Gibbs and Janet Shibamoto, respectively. Although a major was slow in developing, minors in both Chinese and Japanese were in place by the mid-1980s. Meanwhile, an interdisciplinary program in East Asian studies began offering undergraduate degrees, with course work including not only language and literature but also offerings in political science, history, sociology, art history, and comparative literature, as well as film.

In May 1987 Donald Gibbs led the initiative that resulted in the establishment of a Department of Chinese and Japanese, transforming the service-oriented language and literature program into an independent department. The first undergraduate majors graduated in the early 1990s. In 1996, recovering from drastic budget cuts that reduced the size of the faculty, the department was renamed the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures (EALC). The present department comprises ten lecturers who teach courses in language study, a small core faculty specializing in literature (including poetry, drama, fiction, and classics), and faculty with joint appointments in history, art history, and religious studies (2001).

In the 1990s the department has attracted increasing numbers of heritage speakers eager to pursue study in advanced literature and linguistics courses, while continuing to offer intensive introductory Chinese and Japanese language courses, including courses in Mandarin for students who speak other Chinese languages. Internship programs, tutoring opportunities, student cabaret performances, and various education abroad programs enhance student mastery of the languages and cultures of China and Japan.

Today the department sponsors colloquia, lectures, and seminars. With support from Union Bank of California, it also sponsors the annual Asia Pacific Film Festival, begun under the leadership of D. Gibbs, whose own film archive is now preserved in Shields Library. Cumulative annual enrollments in EALC courses have neared a total of 2,000 in recent years. Students, staff, and faculty who read Chinese and Japanese enjoy the benefits of Shields Library's East Asian Collection, headed by Phyllis Wang, which offers enviable ease of access to more than 52,000 volumes. source

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Economics
The Department of Economics was established in 1956 out of the former Department of Sociology, Anthropology, Government, and Economics. Founding members Bruce Glassburner and Warren Gramm, with help from visiting lecturers, managed to offer 16 different undergraduate courses. Under the leadership of Glassburner and Frank Child (hired in 1962), the department by the end of the 1960s offered a broad undergraduate curriculum along with programs leading to M.A. and Ph.D. degrees. The department granted its first Ph.D. in June 1968. Faculty who played an important role in building the department include Thomas Mayer, Martin Oettinger, T. Y. Shen, Elias Tuma, W. Eric Gustafson, Leon Wegge, Andrzej Brzeski, Hiromitsu Kaneda, Victor Goldberg, John Roemer, and Alan Olmstead.

In 1956 the department served three undergraduate majors. By 2000 the department was home to about 500 undergraduate majors, 80 graduate students, and 24 faculty. The department now offers roughly 70 different undergraduate and graduate courses a year. As of 2000, the department had produced 142 Ph.D. students, most of whom now hold academic positions.

A special feature of the undergraduate offerings is a competitive honors program that gives select students the opportunity to engage in original research projects under close faculty mentoring. Eric Gustafson created this program in the early 1970s. It lapsed briefly in the mid-1980s but was revived by Julie Nelson in 1990, and has been supervised and expanded by Peter Linden since 1991. Undergraduates have also had access to a wide array of opportunities through the Davis-in-Washington Program and the Institute of Governmental Affairs. Several department faculty have been recognized for their contributions to undergraduate education with teaching awards.

As the department grew, there were significant changes in the research interests and reputation of the faculty. In its early years the department's strength lay in the area of development economics. By the 1990s the department was highly ranked in a number of fields, including international economics, macroeconomic theory, economic history, and micro-theory. Over the past decade the faculty's research productivity has resulted in departmental rankings in the mid-20s nationally, and in the mid-teens among public universities. In important specialized fields, Davis ranked fourth nationally in economic history, 15th in international economics, and 19th in applied econometrics.

Several faculty have held important academic and editorial positions, including Thomas Mayer, honored as President of the Western Economics Association; Robert Feenstra, an editor of the Journal of International Economics; Kevin Hoover, an editor of the Journal of Economic Methodology; Gregory Clark, an editor of Research in Economic History; and Peter Linden, an editor of the Journal of Economic History. John Roemer and Joaquim Silvestre have been elected Fellows of the Econometrics Society. Glassburner, Child, Kaneda, and Wing Thy Woo have excelled as advisers on economic development to international agencies and foreign governments. Several faculty have held important administrative posts, including Steven Sheffrin, dean of the Division of Social Sciences, and Alan Olmstead, director of the Institute of Governmental Affairs. The department has had seven chairs: Glassburner, Child, Goldberg, Sheffrin, Feenstra, Quinzii, and Hoover. A final distinction is the department's continuing commitment to diversity, with scholars from more than 15 countries having served as faculty members. source

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Education, Division of
The history of the Department of Education has been influenced by two factors: its close ties to the Berkeley campus and its close relationship with agricultural education and Cooperative Extension.

Beginning in 1922, a teacher education program at Davis in the fields of agricultural education and home economics was administered jointly by the Berkeley campus and the University Farm. In 1932 Davis began offering the Special Secondary Credential in Vocational Education. When World War II brought a serious shortage of vocational agricultural teachers, the university began early placement of credential candidates in full-time school positions. This practice eventually developed into internship programs that became useful tools in teacher education after the war. Offered through the Department of Agricultural Education, the Special Credential in Vocational Education program enabled candidates with a few additional courses to qualify for a General Secondary Credential, usually in science. The first General Secondary Credential was granted in 1951. From then until the end of the decade, the department gradually extended the content areas for earning the secondary credential.

In 1959 a new Department of Education was formed in the College of Letters and Science, with founding members from Agricultural Education Margaret Sutherland, Larry Newberry, and Doug Minnis. Minnis started the General Elementary Teacher Education program, and both elementary and secondary teacher training was based on internship programs. This approach to teacher training continued for the succeeding 10 years.

Many changes took place in the department in 1964. In addition to new faculty hires, the number of teacher candidates neared 200. The state legislature passed bills making teacher preparation a postbaccalaureate program. By 1967 the campus approved the M.A. in Education with two areas of emphasis: history and philosophy of education, and educational psychology. By 1974 the department added advanced credentials in school psychology, reading, and bilingual education. During the 1970s the department graduated its highest annual numbers of credential students: 233 in 1974, and nearly 300 in 1977.

The demand for teachers declined during the 1980s, but the academic reputation of the department grew. Donald Arnstine's scholarship on the work of John Dewey, and Linea Ehri and Carl Spring's work on beginning reading, won awards from the American Educational Research Association. Richard Figueroa and Jonathan Sandoval's research in school psychology earned national recognition.

During the early 1980s the campus began a long process of academic planning. After lengthy discussions, the Walker Committee in 1983 recommended the formation of an intercollege Division of Education with a graduate group, the consolidation of all credential programs on campus, and an Organized Research Unit to facilitate school-based research. In 1988, after years of deliberation, both the Division of Education and the Center for Collaborative Research and Extension Services to the Schools (CRESS) were established. The center is responsible for bringing university research to schools and identifying school problems appropriate for university research. Subject matter projects in mathematics, writing, and science have expanded to include projects in history and arts education. In 1991 the center incorporated the Healthy Start field office, and a new Ph.D. program in education and a Joint UCD/CSU Fresno Ed.D. program in educational leadership admitted their first students. In 1998 an additional new collaborative teacher education program, formed in partnership with Sacramento State University, began to address the state's serious elementary school teacher shortage. source

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Electrical and Computer Engineering
There is no history currently available for this department. See College of Engineering.

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Emergency Medicine
There is no history currently available for this department. See School of Medicine.

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Engineering
See Colleges and Schools, College of Engineering.

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English
Instruction in English began at Davis in 1910 at the University Farm School. Classes in writing were required for the agricultural students, but for the first 12 years the only literature offered was "Agricultural Literature." In 1922, the English Division was born, with college-level courses in composition and literature offered to freshmen and sophomores. In 1928, 22-year-old Celeste Turner Wright arrived from UC Berkeley to become chair. In 1933, when the Division of Language and Literature superseded the former English Division, Wright also began teaching German and directing student plays. As chair, she shepherded the division through 22 more years until 1955. By the beginning of World War II, the division had seven faculty.

With the return of veterans after the war, a spurt of growth took place in the division with the addition of upper-division courses (1948), an English major (1952), and graduate courses (1955). The Department of English, Dramatic Art, and Speech, formed initially in the College of Letters and Science (1952), became the Department of English in 1961. A master's degree had already been awarded in 1960, and the first Ph.D. was bestowed in 1964, at which date there were already 55 graduate students and 195 undergraduate English majors. The undergraduate program was the second largest in the College of Letters and Science, the graduate program the largest, and the faculty had grown to 19 full-time professors.

An infusion of nationally known scholars strengthened the department in the early 1960s. William Van O'Connor, an established scholar with a considerable reputation, was brought in to chair the department, and he recruited a distinguished colleague from the University of Minnesota, Brom Weber, as well as James Woodress, the poet Karl Shapiro, and Everett Carter. Despite O'Connor's relatively early death, the department became a formidable center for the study of American literature.

Although the department mainly emphasized traditional literary history and criticism, it also included a decided emphasis on creative writing. New faculty in English literature established two journals, the scholarly Eighteenth Century Studies and the California Quarterly, which published creative writing. In 1972 department member Jack Hicks organized a summer creative writing program, held annually in Squaw Valley and taught by such distinguished writers as Gary Snyder, a well-known poet and member of the faculty.

While American literature continues to be a strength of the department, other fortes have emerged. Recently, for instance, the department was ranked tenth in the nation for its expertise in gender studies. The creative writing program continues to be strong, while a new area of studies--literature and the environment--has risen to national prominence. The undergraduate major currently includes nearly 600 students, and the number of active graduate students is close to 100. English is the largest department in the recently formed Division of Humanities, Arts, and Cultural Studies. Faculty participate actively in interdisciplinary groundbreaking programs such as Nature and Culture, Women and Gender Studies, Cultural Studies, and the Environmental Initiative. source

See also Department of Dramatic Art and Speech.

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Entomology
The Department of Entomology at UC Davis began as a subunit of the Department of Entomology and Parasitology at UC Berkeley and was closely entwined with the department at Berkeley for more than 50 years before it became autonomous. The first record of entomology being taught at Davis occurred when Professor C. W. Woodworth from UC Berkeley spoke to the State Farmers' Institute at the University Farm on October 30, 1907, on the "Whitefly Situation in California." This was a forerunner to the Farmers' Short Courses (three to six weeks) that began in the fall of 1908. In 1913 a two-year nondegree program in entomology was established at Davis. Degree work in entomology was offered at Davis in 1923-24 when S. B. Freeborn was transferred from Berkeley to Davis to head the expanding program. At this time a course was also offered in veterinary parasitology.

Although the department grew slowly between 1928 and 1942, it grew substantially between 1945 and 1947, in part because of the return of many World War II GI students and the permanent transfer of faculty from field stations to Davis. Over the next 15 years new developments included the establishment of a separate entomology curriculum in 1950, when full instruction was offered leading to the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees. The first Ph.D. in entomology at Davis was conferred in 1962.

As the Davis campus began to develop independently from Berkeley under Provost (later Chancellor) Freeborn after 1952, the Department of Entomology began to assert its independence from Berkeley. In 1962 the study of entomology at Berkeley was reorganized into four major divisions: entomology, insect pathology, biological control, and parasitology (which included the former Department of Biological Control). Davis entomologists were made a section of the reorganized department at Berkeley, but by this time entomology was functioning smoothly as a fully integrated unit on the Davis campus. On July 1,1963, the Department of Entomology at Davis was officially established as autonomous. Course offerings were enlarged dramatically, and curricular emphasis shifted from agricultural entomology to a more fundamental biological approach including ecology and physiology to match increasing sophistication in the entomological profession.

Research and teaching activities have grown steadily since 1946, when there were seven academic and five nonacademic staff. In 1999 the department had 28 academic faculty and 40 academic staff. The department has continued to evolve, making numerous contributions to the Davis campus in both teaching and research. Entomology faculty teach specific courses for limited audiences and garner more student contact hours than most other departments in the College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences.

Research in the department spans the gamut from basic to applied and molecular to ecological. The diversity and number of extramural grants derives from an aggressive and multifaceted faculty working on a wealth of fundamental and applied problems. The broad interests of the faculty also drive the imaginative teaching program. Few if any other departments of entomology in the nation boast the range and extent of teaching, diversity of faculty expertise, and level of grant support of the Davis department. source

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Environmental Design

Design
The design program at UC Davis began as part of the Division of Home Economics in the 1930s. Within the general home economics major, design was a subject matter area that included textiles, costume, and interior design. Doris Heineman was in charge of textile design and began the collection of textile and costume artifacts.

In the early 1960s, change in society and the roles of women led the Davis campus, like many others, to transform its general home economics program into more highly specialized fields. During the reorganization, faculty members in design were realigned into the new departments of Applied Behavioral Sciences (ABS) and Family and Consumer Sciences. Other design faculty became core members of the newly established Department of Art, including Robert Arneson, Richard Cramer, and Daniel Shapiro.

Enrollment rose from 12 design majors in 1967 to 105 by 1970 and 320 by 1980. Since then, enrollments have stabilized between 250 and 330. New faculty hires in design in 1967 included Helge Olsen in interior design, Katherine Rossbach in textile design, and JoAnn Stabb in costume and clothing design. In 1970 Dolph Gotelli and Frances Butler joined the faculty to lead the visual communication/ presentation area. Other additions to the faculty included architect Richard Berteaux (1973), Gyongy Laky (1978), Victoria Rivers (1980), and Barbara Shawcroft (1982). These renowned designers have brought international recognition to design at UC Davis. Several of them represented North American design at the 1980 World Crafts Council conference in Vienna, Austria.

In 1982 the design and landscape architecture units were incorporated into the new Department of Environmental Design, officially recognized on March 31, 1983. Architect Patricia Harrison joined the interior design faculty in 1988. Kathryn Silva joined the visual communication area in 1996.

The Design Gallery, a major component of the department's outreach efforts, opened in 1984 under the direction of Dolph Gotelli. The Design Alliance, a community support group, was established in 1989. In 1994 the new Master of Fine Arts graduate program in textile arts and costume design accepted its first group of six students. The Design Collection, curated by JoAnn Stabb, has grown to more than 10,000 artifacts and, in addition to enriching the curriculum through gallery exhibitions, was featured at the Chancellor's Club celebration of June 1999.

Core programs in interior architecture, textile and costume design, and visual communications remain the three primary areas of emphasis within the design major. The Davis design program is known for its emphasis on environmentally friendly design, its recognition of multicultural origins and aesthetic diversity, and its interest in design to meet the needs of underrepresented populations. Teaching and research efforts seek to develop consumer goods from agricultural products and to enhance overall quality of life through socially responsible and environmentally sensitive design solutions that meet basic human needs for textiles, clothing, shelter, and communication. source

Landscape Architecture
In 1950 landscape architect Robert Deering was brought to UC Davis to teach its first course in landscape design and chair a new specialized curriculum within the bachelor of science program in the College of Agriculture. Landscape architecture classes were incorporated into the new Landscape Management major, subsequently renamed Landscape Horticulture in 1959.

Landscape architect Robert L. Thayer Jr. was hired in 1973 as a permanent faculty member in the Department of Environmental Horticulture. Five new upper-division courses in landscape architecture were added to the curriculum under the Environmental Planning and Management program.

In 1980 landscape architects Mark Francis and Byron McCulley joined the faculty. The landscape architecture program received full accreditation in 1981 from the American Society of Landscape Architecture, with the first BSLA degree designation in 1982.

In March 1983 the design and landscape architecture programs were incorporated into the new Department of Environmental Design. The same year, Steve McNiel joined the landscape architecture faculty, and the Center for Design Research, a research and outreach unit, was established. Heath Schenker and Patsy Eubanks Owens, both landscape architects, became permanent faculty members in 1990. In 1993 Dean MacCannell, a social theorist in UCD's applied behavioral sciences department, petitioned for inclusion and became a member of the landscape architecture faculty. Landscape architecture received full budgetary and administrative independence within the Department of Environmental Design in 1994, and Mark Francis was appointed program chair. The following year Nigel Allan, a cultural geographer, was admitted as a faculty member. In addition, a faculty position in Landscape Ecology/Landscape Architecture was added to the program. Dean MacCannell became the program chair in 1998.

The landscape architecture program at UC Davis is the only accredited undergraduate program in the UC system. It has been ranked in the top five undergraduate programs nationwide for the past ten years. The overriding goal of the program is to increase quality of life through development and preservation of landscapes that are meaningful, relevant, and sustainable: meaningful in that they reinforce sense of self, sense of place, and sense of community; relevant in that they provide solutions to environmental problems rather than contribute to them; and sustainable in that they embody a long-term permanently beneficial relationship between human culture and the physical/natural environment. source

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Environmental Horticulture
The Division of Landscape Gardening and Floriculture was established at Davis in 1922 as an activity of the Berkeley campus division of the same name. Formal ties with the Berkeley division were discontinued in 1929. With only one degree course offered, the main emphasis at Davis was the two-year program. In the early 1930s the faculty and students planned and installed what is now the north half of Central Park in Davis.

Research efforts began in 1949 when Robert Deering was appointed department chair and a member of the staff of the Agricultural Experiment Station. In 1953 a four-year major in landscape management was established, and the name of the department reflected this change. The two-year program was terminated in 1960.

In the mid-1950s, laboratories, a greenhouse, and land located east of the present Buehler Alumni Center were available for teaching and research, and emphasis centered on planning public and private landscaped areas and on the selection, use, and culture of landscape plants. By 1958 five faculty members offered courses in landscape design and construction, taxonomy, turf management, arboriculture, and nursery production. The M.S. in horticulture and doctoral programs in botany, ecology, genetics, plant physiology, and soils were available to graduate students. The department name was changed to Landscape Horticulture in 1959.

After a Cooperative Extension specialist's position was established in 1960, research and training was carried on with county Cooperative Extension advisors throughout the state. For 25 years, beginning in 1959, the department sponsored a five-day Park and Recreation Administrators Institute at Asilomar through University Extension.

Between 1963 and 1967, five academic floriculture positions were transferred to Davis from UCLA. Teaching and research in floriculture and nursery management were greatly strengthened and the department was renamed Environmental Horticulture.

A major in park administration was established in 1962 to provide instruction in the planning, development, and management of environmental resources. Offerings in landscape design and park administration increased, leading in 1972-73 to a major in landscape architecture and to the formation of an environmental planning and management (EPM) program, which also included park administration, environmental planning, environmental education, and landscape management. In 1983 the programs in landscape architecture (EPM) and design (ABS) were merged into a new Department of Environmental Design. The major in park administration was discontinued and those courses returned to Environmental Horticulture, while other areas were assumed by Environmental Science and Policy.

The Western Center for Urban Forest (UF) Research and Education of the Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, moved to the Davis campus in 1992 and was housed in new quarters with Environmental Horticulture. A major in EH/UF was also established. source

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Environmental Science and Policy
The Division of Environmental Studies began in 1970 as an intercollege unit, funded by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation and established to focus on the environment and society. In many ways the division functioned like a traditional department, providing undergraduate and graduate instruction, research, and public service. It was expected to exercise leadership in combining rigorous analysis of environmental problems, using the best available tools, with outreach of information and service to decision makers. Unlike most conventional college departments, however, the division was supervised by a group of several deans from different colleges. In 1982 a review committee concluded that for administrative purposes the Division of Environmental Studies should be incorporated into the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. In 1998, the name of the unit was changed to the Department of Environmental Science and Policy.

Over the past 30 years the department has pursued a mixture of innovative original basic and mission-oriented activities. For example, the department's teaching programs include two undergraduate multidisciplinary majors: environmental biology and management (EBM) and environmental policy analysis and planning (EPAP). The EBM major offers students an education in the basic natural sciences, especially ecology, together with a set of management and public policy analysis courses. The EPAP major provides students with a general background in the natural sciences relevant to environmental policy. Further, the department provides a strong core of faculty for the Graduate Group in Ecology, the largest graduate group on campus. Most faculty participate in other graduate programs as well.

True to its interdisciplinary mandate, the department conducts research in five areas: aquatic ecology, population and community ecology, human ecology, environmental and energy policy analysis, and natural resource management. All faculty members conduct both basic and applied work related to environmental problems. Examples include the work of Charles Goldman on Lake Tahoe, James Quinn on conservation biology and park size, Peter Richerson on Clear Lake, Susan Harrison and Alan Hasting on population dynamics, Seymour Schwartz and Robert Johnson on the effects of urban growth controls, Marca Weinberg on water policy, Paul Sabatier on environmental decision making, and Daniel Sperling on nonpetroleum transportation fuels. source

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Environmental Toxicology
In 1957 the Department of Environmental Toxicology at Davis originated as a pesticide residue project in the Department of Entomology. At that time it was felt that available data on residues and toxicity of pesticides was inadequate to support the university's pesticide recommendations for California agriculture. In part due to public concern over pesticide residues in milk, the state legislature appropriated funds to the university to conduct research on the health aspects of pesticide residues. With its portion of these funds, the Davis campus financed a research unit, the Pesticide Residue Research Laboratory, under the guidance of an interdepartmental committee.

In 1962 the laboratory became an organized research unit with a full-time academic staff, called the Agricultural Toxicology and Residue Research Laboratory (ATRRL) to identify more accurately its broad, long-range interests. Its responsibilities included routine residue analysis to support pesticide recommendations, basic research on associated health hazards, and development of analytical methods and new instrumentation for the rapid identification and analysis of organic and inorganic chemicals at the submicrogram level. Although early efforts primarily served the needs of the Agricultural Experiment Station, the laboratory rapidly gained national and international recognition.

In 1968, after six years of teaching courses ad hoc and a growing involvement in graduate research, the ATRRL became the Department of Environmental Toxicology. Its new responsibilities included a full range of teaching, research, and service functions. The department established research strengths in biochemical toxicology, hazard assessment, and analytical/ environmental chemistry dealing with a variety of chemicals including pesticides and other economic poisons, natural toxicants, and chemical pollutants. In 1969 the department received a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) training grant for pre- and postdoctoral programs in toxicology. This was one of the first two toxicology training grants in the country, and it was still in operation in 1999. The undergraduate program was initiated in 1974 with a curriculum leading to the first B.S. program in environmental toxicology to be offered in the nation and perhaps the world. Students have pursued a variety of careers in academic research, state and federal agencies, and private consulting firms as well as in environmental law, medicine, and teaching.

The department has played a central role in campus programs that focus on toxicants in the environment. It is committed to understanding the action of environmental chemicals across a spectrum of disciplines, and generating interfaces where new discoveries are made. Programs currently housed within the department include: NIEHS training grants in environmental toxicology; the NIEHS Center for Environmental Health Sciences, a multidisciplinary research center; the graduate group in pharmacology and toxicology; the IR-4 Leader Lab, supporting minor use pesticide registration in the Western Region; the Pesticide Impact Assessment Program and the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank; offices of the Statewide Pesticide Coordinator, the Center for Pest Management Research and Extension, and the first extension toxicologists in the U.S.; and the Toxicology Documentation Center.

Currently three major areas of departmental research include molecular and cellular toxicology, analytical and environmental chemistry, and systems toxicology. Molecular and cellular toxicology research interests include the effects of toxicants on gene expression, cell growth and differentiation, signal transduction pathways, gamete development, and fertilization. Analytical and environmental chemistry research emphasizes pesticide residues, environmental pollutants, and biologically active compounds in foods as well as mechanisms of environmental fate and metabolism. Analytical methods include mass spectrometry and a variety of chromatographic techniques. Systems studies are pursued in reproductive and developmental toxicology, aquatic toxicology, skin toxicology, neurotoxicology, and avian ecotoxicology. source

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Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine
There is no history currently available for this department. See School of Medicine.

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Evolution and Ecology
Evolution and Ecology (EVE) is the successor to the former Department of Zoology, established in 1922. The first course offered by Tracy Storer was in general zoology, which enrolled 21 to 47 students annually from 1923 to 1928; four more courses were added by 1928. Storer also initiated a course in economic zoology, which emphasized vertebrate pests and fur-bearing mammals. The curriculum eventually included invertebrate zoology, protozoology, and histology. Under Storer's direction, the zoology division produced a number of animal pest control pamphlets for distribution by university field personnel to farmers statewide. There were 13 such pamphlets, with more than a quarter of a million copies distributed. These constituted a basis for acrimony between Davis and other UC campuses after poisoning vertebrate pests became unpopular.

After formation of the College of Letters and Science, an undergraduate zoology major was available in both this college and the College of Agriculture. New fields of study were added, gradually transforming the unit into a general biology department. Teaching and research expanded, especially in cell biology. A graduate program was offered in cooperation with the Department of Zoology at Berkeley. The doctoral degree in zoology was offered at Davis beginning in 1959.

In 1961 Loye Miller, once Storer's instructor but long retired, came to the Davis campus to add substantially to the scientific and spiritual strength of the department. Miller continued daily work on avian paleontology and student advising until his death in 1970, shortly before Storer's death in 1973. Until the late 1960s the department was scattered in several buildings, but in 1969 the new Tracy I. Storer Hall brought the 19 faculty members under one roof. A modern field house was constructed with an undisturbed natural area nearby. Also under departmental jurisdiction at that time was the 5,000 acre Hopland Field Station, with two department members.

By the early 1970s the zoology department had become so diverse that two "area committees" were formed to oversee its programs: "Organismal and Environmental Biology" (skin out) and "Cell and Molecular Biology" (skin in). Most of the department's applied economic and agricultural responsibilities were transferred into the new Environmental Studies and Wildlife and Fisheries Biology, while research in zoology became increasingly basic. The department developed major strengths in ecology, behavior, evolution, and vertebrate and invertebrate zoology as well as in various "skin in" disciplines, and graduate enrollments rose markedly. The undergraduate major became the second largest in the Division of Biological Sciences, attracting many pre-med, pre-vet, and pre-allied health sciences students. By 1989 the faculty peaked at 27, including five emeriti.

Eventually the diverging interests of the faculty made a split inevitable. When the Division of Biological Sciences was reorganized in 1993, the "skin in" faculty moved to Molecular and Cellular Biology, and the "skin out" faculty formed the core of Evolution and Ecology, which remained in Storer Hall. EVE was strengthened by the transfer of several faculty from the former departments of botany and genetics. In its first year, EVE had 19 active faculty and 13 emeriti. The former zoology B.A. and B.S. majors were reformulated as EVE majors, and the entire curriculum was revised. The zoology graduate program was closed, although continuing students were allowed to complete their degrees.

EVE houses the new Center for Population Biology, with membership across the campus, and its affiliated graduate group in population biology. EVE faculty also train graduate students in the ecology, animal behavior, entomology, plant biology, and geography graduate groups. Although the agricultural emphasis of Storer's time is long gone, all full-time EVE faculty participate actively in Agricultural Experiment Station projects. Overall, EVE is one of the strongest programs of its type in the nation, attracting outstanding faculty and students. source

See also Molecular and Cellular Biology and Division of Biological Sciences.

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Exercise Science
An academic major in physical education was established at UC Davis in 1958. Charles Kovacic was the department's first chair, with responsibility for acquiring a faculty qualified to deliver an academic program. Instructors in physical education included Marya Welch, Barbara Heller, Will Lotter, Herb Schmalenberger, William Lakie, and E. Dean Ryan. The department remained responsible for general instruction and supervision in the intramural and intercollegiate sports programs begun in 1910.

In 1964 the department acquired a new research and teaching laboratory complex, the first such facility designed for research in exercise science in the UC system. The Human Performance Laboratory (HPL) developed an array of ergometric devices designed to measure controlled exercise/work under specific environmental conditions. Faculty focused mainly on exercise physiology, with some work in the newly developing area of sport psychology under Dean Ryan, second chair of the department. Several faculty became active in the physiology, bioengineering, and nutrition graduate groups; they also initiated highly productive interdisciplinary research with faculty in the School of Medicine. Over the years exercise research has included completion of 140 graduate theses, publication of about 235 faculty papers, and involvement of dozens of campus and professional colleagues.

Creation of the M.A. program in 1966 was predicated on more rigorous prerequisite education in the physical and biological sciences, which required the recasting of the undergraduate curriculum. These developments were critical in the department's evolution away from training students for careers in teaching and coaching toward preparing health professionals. Another revision of the curriculum in 1988 introduced tracks in physiology, biomechanics, and clinical exercise. The HPL became nationally recognized for its research productivity and preparation of Ph.D.s. The academic, evolution brought a change in the name of the department to Exercise Science.

During the past 25 years the department has concentrated on both basic and applied research in exercise biology, biomechanics, and clinical exercise. The first major extramural grant came to Kovacic in 1961 to establish safety standards for sports equipment and facilities. Research funded by NASA and the Office of Air Force Research and supervised by Ed Bernauer, William Adams, and Paul Mold has led to the understanding of effective exercise regimens, potential for adaptation, and the recommendation of minimal standards necessary for sustaining performance under challenging conditions. Adams and Bernauer studied the limiting effects of altitude on running performance in a series of investigations that included field, climatic, and simulated altitude settings. Adams has contributed significantly to the understanding of ozone pollution on pulmonary function, physical performance, and health. Mole and some of his graduate students have contributed to further defining the metabolic role played by exercise during dietary weight loss regimens.

The department's Adult Fitness Program has focused on the general role of exercise in the maintenance of sound health throughout life, and its rehabilitation following surgery, disease, and/or injury. Assessment of physical demands in the workplace and the establishment of minimal standards for work or back-to-work fitness are ongoing.

The department's newest area of research is in biomechanics. Keith Williams and David Hawkins provide the leadership in this field. Williams employs cinematography and inverse dynamics analysis techniques to determine forces and moments in performance, while Hawkins focuses on tissue repair and adaptation from the molecular to the human systemic level. Now highly quantitative in analysis, biomechanics integrates principles from engineering, physiology, and medicine in studies of biological mechanisms relating to physical performance and health maintenance throughout life. source

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