Santa Cruz: Historical Overview
The need for another general campus of
the University in northern California was first indicated publicly
in 1957. The "South Central Coast" counties were designated as
the appropriate region and were approved by the Regents in October,
1957. In March, 1961, the 2,000-acre Cowell Ranch site overlooking
Monterey Bay was chosen. The following July, Dean E. McHenry was
appointed chancellor and the campus received a general allocation
of functions in the University-wide academic plan.
1962, a physical master planning design team, headed by John Carl
Warnecke, architect, and Thomas D. Church, landscape architect,
was selected. The resulting long range development plan was accepted
by the Regents in September, 1963.
During 1961-62, substantial agreement was reached between University-wide
and campus administrations on several major academic features,
including the following emphases: (1) The "college" as the basic
unit of planning and of student and faculty identification; (2)
initial concentration on undergraduate liberal arts education;
(3) the residential nature of the campus; (4) early distinction
in the arts and sciences: humanities, social sciences, and natural
sciences; (5) a restricted curriculum, designed mainly to serve
students' needs rather than reflect faculty interests; (6) stress
on tutorials, seminars, and independent study; (7) a sports program
on an intramural basis.
In July, 1962, offices for the
chancellor, University librarian, and planning cadre were opened
in Santa Cruz. During 1963-64, the provost of Cowell College and
the business and finance officer were appointed, detailed curricular
plans were proposed, and substantial progress was made toward
assembling the initial faculty. By mid-1964, construction was
underway or about to be on buildings sufficient for instruction
of the first class in fall, 1965. In June, 1964, the Regents amended
their standing orders to establish the Graduate Division at Santa
Cruz, with M.A., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees, and Cowell College,
with B.S. and A.B. degrees.
Chief architect of the Santa Cruz
concept for a "collegiate" university was Chancellor McHenry.
McHenry's concept for Santa Cruz was a synthesis of the best of
a small college and the best of a large university--all within
the framework and strength of a great state university system.
With the acceptance of the first class
of 654 students in the fall, 1965, Santa Cruz consisted of a single
liberal arts coeducational college, Cowell College. Administrators
in the mid-1960's expected that by 1995, Santa Cruz would grow
into a collegiate university of 25,000 or more. It was expected
to grow as a cluster of small colleges on a single campus, adding
one college almost every year until there were 20, averaging about
600 members each. Each would be a liberal arts college, but each
would approach a liberal arts education from a different perspective.
Cowell emphasized the humanities. Adlai E. Stevenson College (1966)
would emphasize the modern social sciences. Crown College (1967;
named for the Crown Zellerbach Foundation) would be centered in
the natural sciences and mathematics. Subsequent colleges would
emphasize languages and literatures, the arts, and so on.
Each would be headed by a provost.
Campus-wide guidelines would specify broad fields to be covered
for the A.B. degree, but each college would determine how best
to implement them in keeping with its identity and personality.
Early concentration was on high
quality undergraduate education. In the fall of 1966, Santa Cruz
planned to begin to launch the additional enterprises of a general
university: graduate instruction, professional schools, and research
institutions. Early professional schools were planned to be engineering
(1967), natural resources (1968), business (1970), and landscape
architecture (1972). The Lick Observatory, transferred to Santa
Cruz administration in 1965, offered graduate instruction and
Within the University at Santa
Cruz, each college would be a relatively self-contained, semi-autonomous
educational entity, with its own residence halls, classrooms,
dining hall large enough to accommodate all-college gatherings,
a student center, a library-reading lounge, and faculty studies.
Each college would provide quarters within the college compound
for its provost and his family, apartments for 12 or so of its
faculty fellows and preceptors, and guest suites for visiting
scholars, lecturers, and distinguished visitors. Social and athletic
events also would center in the colleges.
Thus, each individual college would
try to meet its students' needs for identity and sense of belonging.
Teaching and intellectual stimulation would be major faculty concerns,
implemented by small classes, close instruction, and continuing
student-faculty dialogue over the dinner table and elsewhere.
In these respects, Santa Cruz would
retain and strengthen the best features of the small liberal arts
college, but with an important difference--these small residential
colleges would be clustered within the leavening and broadening
influence of a large university. Interchange between the colleges,
great scholars, excellent libraries and laboratories, and superior
cultural events would provide a cosmopolitan setting to counterbalance
the parochialism which tends to develop in small communities.
College membership assignments
were expected to be made by a faculty committee representing all
colleges. The choice of college would not preselect the major
or field of specialization. Any student in any college would be
able major in any discipline he wished. To encourage the stimulation
that results from exchanging different points of view, not more
than half the membership would major in the area of emphasis of
their own college. Students in each college would have access
to the offerings in every other and in the central campus for
those subjects requiring facilities not available in a college--a
laboratory course in biology, for example. Each college would
have its own student government.
A faculty member would come
to Santa Cruz with the understanding that at least 50 per cent
of their time would be devoted to teaching. Their appointment would
be joint--within a discipline and as a fellow of a particular
college. Their salary would come in part from the budget of his
college. They would responsible to his provost as well as to the
dean of his division.
Financing UC Santa Cruz
For each college, the basic essentials of classroom, dormitory,
and dining facilities came from state appropriations and either
federal loans or revenue bond issues. Together they covered about
80 per cent of the construction cost of a college. State funds
and other current income provided staffing and the operating and
The additional 20 per cent that
came from private sources covered those augmenting facilities,
such as quarters for the provost, for faculty fellows and preceptors,
a conference and common room, and a library-reading room with
a starting cllection of books. The augmenting facilities for Cowell
College were provided by the generosity of the H. S. Cowell Foundation,
which furnished $925,000 toward the total construction cost of