San Francisco: Summer Sessions
The first formal summer sessions program
was established in 1946. Prior to that time students who wished
to complete work in the summer were enrolled through the professional
schools. Students in the paramedical programs (i.e., physical therapists,
medical illustrators, etc.) had never participated because their
schooling followed a 12-month sequence.
The sessions were offered in two six-week sections:
Session I beginning the first Monday immediately following the close
of the spring semester, Session II immediately following the close
of Session I. Summer Session III, lasting eight weeks, was started
in 1960 and continued through 1963. Enrollment in the Summer Sessions
increased from 62 students in 1946 to 327 students in 1964.
When University-wide coordination of Summer Sessions
was established in 1957, Dr. Willard C. Fleming was appointed Summer
Sessions director for the San Francisco campus. In 1959, program
in the School of Nursing in limited status (for students already
holding R.N. baccalaureate) and R.N. baccalaureate and master's
candidates were transferred from the Berkeley campus. The first
students registered in these programs in Summer Sessions of 1960.
The summer term was a 12-week term beginning the
first Monday immediately following the close of the spring semester
and did not come under the jurisdiction of the Summer Sessions.
The summer term for students in the School of Nursing was in existence
from the beginning of the diploma program begun in the hospital
training school for nurses in 1907; it was established as a formal
program in 1946. Postdoctoral students' (interns, assistant residents,
residents) registration in summer term began in 1954. Beginning
in 1960, the basic baccalaureate program in nursing transferred
to regular semesters only. Total enrollment in the summer term increased
from 186 students in 1946 to 524 students in 1964.
Summer Research Training Program
By the mid-1960's research training for medical
students was generally accepted by the more progressive medical
schools as an essential feature of the education of future physicians.
It was felt that in actual practice, every patient was a new and
unique research problem confronting the physician, so that it would
be to his advantage to have some experience in the over-all philosophy
of research undertaking. This concept was developed early in the
twentieth century at the Johns Hopkins Medical School and also at
the University of Wisconsin Medical School. It was introduced at
the University of California Medical School by 1930.
In 1961, an approach was made for a grant from
the National Institutes of Health for the support of a systematic
medical student research training program which would operate primarily
during the summer months. Such a grant was obtained in 1962 and
the program began with Dr. Robert M. Featherstone as acting director
and operated under the supervision of the Committee on Student Summer
Research Fellowships and Student Research Training Program, of which
Dr. William O. Reinhardt was chairman. In September, 1962, Dr. Chauncey
D. Leake became coordinator of the program.
The medical student research training program,
supported by U.S. Public Health Service grants, voluntary health
agencies, and industry, offered to selected medical students and
incoming first-year medical students the opportunity to undertake
special research training during the summer. The amount of the stipend
for each fellowship varied according to the time devoted to the
project. Most students spent eight to ten weeks during the summer
at stipends of $750 and $900 respectively. A special feature of
the program was the opportunity for qualified students to elect
to spend a year in research training at any time during the first
three years of medical school. Although registered in the School
of Medicine curriculum, students undertaking such a program might
apply for registration simultaneously in the Graduate Division.
Work completed during this research year could be credited toward
a master's or doctoral degree. The five-year program was provided
especially for those interested in obtaining advanced academic degrees
and those planning careers in academic medicine.
The summer research fellowship program included
a series of lectures and seminars during July and August. This aspect
of the program was intended to supplement the laboratory experience
and direct faculty-student relationships. The series was designed
to broaden the acquaintance of the student with areas of research
which could be of current or future interest. In addition to the
research seminar sessions, a series of lectures in the history and
philosophy of medicine and science was offered, with discussion
of the pertinence of the history of science to medical education
and the natures of unique contributions made by medical students
in the past.
In 1962, 84 students participated in the medical
student research training program in 1964, the number had risen
to 181. Students could elect to undertake their research effort
at universities and institutions other than the medical school.
In the summer of 1964, six students studied abroad, in places ranging
from the University of Tokyo to the Universities of Cambridge and
The major goals of the program were: (a)
to recognize, encourage, and prepare outstanding students to enter
some field of academic medicine; (b) to provide stipends of sufficient
magnitude to compete with the nonmedically related jobs many students
have been forced to accept during summer periods; (c) to increase
medical student professional knowledge and understanding through
research. These goals were readily achieved in the program and about
ten per cent of the projects resulted in presentation of data at
scientific meetings by students, with subsequent publication in