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University of California: Universitywide and Affiliated Institutions


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California Breast Cancer Research Program (CBCRP)
California Digital Library (CDL)
California Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research (qb3)
California Institutes for Science and Innovation (CISI)
California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Cal-(IT)²)
California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI)
California Policy Research Center (CPRC)
California Space Institute (CalSpace)
California Virtual Campus (CVC)
Capital Planning Program
Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS)
College Prep Online (UCCP)
Committee on Latino Research (UCCLR)
Complex Adaptive Matter, Institute for (ICAM)
Continuing Education in Medicine and the Health Sciences
Continuing Education of the Bar
Cooperative Extension

California Breast Cancer Research Program (CBCRP)
The California Breast Cancer Research Program (CBCRP) was established in response to the California State Legislature's 1993 Breast Cancer Act. Administered by the Office of the President and the University of California and funded by the tobacco tax, voluntary tax check-off of personal income taxes, and individual contributions, CBCRP was the largest state-funded research program in the U.S. in 2004.

CBCRP encourages creative research that may advance understanding of breast cancer, encouraging atypical research involving subjects such as cow viruses, Tibetan herbs, and snake venom. source

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California Digital Library (CDL)
In 1997, then UC President Richard Atkinson created the California Digital Library as the 11th University Library to serve as a digital complement to the 10 libraries on the physical UC campuses. One of the CDL's many responsibilities is to turn what was once hard-to-find, often even one-of-a-kind information into digital format, most of which is then made available to the public through the internet.

Also under the CDL umbrella is SearchLight, a meta-search engine for periodicals and scholarly journals, Melvyl, the catalog for all the UC Libraries, and the Online Archive of California, a repository of California history which, as of 2004, includes 120,000 images and 50,000 pages of written material. source

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California Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research (QB3)
California Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research (QB3) is a collaborative effort between UCSF, UCB, and UCSC that grapples with biomedical research through a concert of biology, physics, chemistry, engineering and computer sciences. By bringing together such an array of disciplines, researchers are able to understand quantitative bioscience more deeply, with a scope that extends from the entire organism to its individual atoms. It was created in 2000 as one of the founding components of CISI. QB3 authors a number of educational and outreach programs, such as the Computational Biology Initiative, which seeks to strengthen the Berkeley campus's already robust computational biology program through research and a graduate fellowship, and the Idea to IPO Course for Entrepreneurial Scientists. source

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California Institutes for Science and Innovation (CISI)
CISI was created in the year 2000 as a three-way partnership between the state, industry, and the University of California. The goal of this organization is to increase the state's ability to produce knowledge and skilled people to drive economic growth in the coming years. Currently, there are four institutes under the aegis of CISI: QB3 (California Institute for Bioengineering, Biotechnology, & Quantitative Biomedical Research), Cal-(IT)² (California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology ), CNSI (California Nanosystems Institute), and CITRIS (Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society). source

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California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Cal-(IT)²)
Cal-(IT)² brings together faculty at UCI and UCSD, who look forward into the next decade and see the role of the internet expanding from a fact-finding appliance grounded on a wired modem to a pervasive medium of information flow. Already, wireless devices such as phones and PDA's employ robust internet capabilities, and the shift from dial-up to DSL is in full swing.

Cal-(IT)²'s researchers conduct their work inside "living laboratories", where they field-test devices and investigate how these new technologies will affect fields ranging from environmental science to genomic medicine. source

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California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI)
UCLA and UCSB partnered to create the CNSI, a multidisciplinary institute focused on the technology of nano-scale devices in the biomedical, information, and manufacturing industries. California is positioned to lead the world in nanotechnology; it has the necessary human resources, technology, and educational infrastructure. California not only led the world in the information revolution even before someone uttered the words "Silicon Valley", but also was on the forefront of understanding biological materials such as proteins and DNA. source

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California Policy Research Center (CPRC)
The California Policy Research Center was originally established as the California Policy Seminar in 1977. The goal of the research center is to use UC research to aid in the analysis, development and implementation of state and federal policies. The center is governed by a twenty-five-member steering committee appointed by the Governor, President pro Tempore of the Senate and Senate Minority Leader, Speaker of the Assembly, Assembly Minority Leader, and the President of the University of California.

CPRC sponsors UC faculty and affiliated researches to conduct policy-relevant research. Information from the research is distributed through publications and special briefings. Past research has touched on topics such as elderly care, affirmative action, education, drugs, criminal system, labor, race, and welfare.

The CPRC also facilitates special programs like the Welfare Policy Research Project (WPRP), California Program on Access to Care (CPAC), Latino Policy Institute (LPI), and California-Mexico Health Initiative (CMHI). source

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California Space Institute (CalSpace)
In the late 1970s, the California Space Institute was created as a Multicampus Research Unit (MRU) for the purpose of encouraging space-related research and education, as well as providing a portal through which relationships with government institutions, such as NASA, industries, and also the general public, could be forged. It started on the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UCSD, and undertook its first major task: the use of satellites in the study of oceanography and climatology. The California Space Institute also began funding small research projects at the other campuses, though it did not establish Centers of Excellence on the other campuses until after Wolfe Berger took leadership of the program in 1998.

By 2004, the Institute had two Centers of Excellence (COEs) under development (Los Angeles and Irvine) and five established on other UC campuses:

  1. San Diego (Scripps Institution of Oceanography): Earth and Space Science and Aerospace Engineering
  2. Davis: Remote Sensing of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment
  3. Berkeley (Space Sciences Laboratory): Space Sciences and Engineering
  4. Santa Cruz: Origin Studies (Adaptive Optics and Astrobiology)
  5. Santa Barbara: Remote Sensing for GIS and Geography (operating from 3/1/99-6/30/03)

source

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California Virtual Campus (CVC)
The California Virtual Campus began operating its online course programs in 1999. It was created partly to continue a few of the services of the previous California Virtual University (CVU). California Governor at the time, Pete Wilson began developing CVU in 1997 as an online courses catalog. After the CVU program began operations in 1998, it gained the support of five UC campuses, eighty-nine state accredited colleges and universities and offered around seven hundred classes. Its work continued to grow, and in April 1999, CVU had two thousand online courses and involved over a hundred accredited public and private universities. Unfortunately, in 1999, CVU lost funding, and the University of California agreed to take over maintenance of CVU's website, www.california.edu. In the same year, the services of the CVU were reorganized and assigned to the California Virtual Campus (CVC). CVC was given a five-year funding commitment of $250,000 a year to continue its course catalog and online services through a new URL: www.cvc.edu.

CVC was organized into four regional centers:
Region 1, Bay Area Regional Center at De Anza College;
Region 2, Greater Los Angeles Regional Center at Rio Hondo College;
Region 3, Southern California Regional Center at Coastline College; and
Region 4, Statewide/Rural Regional Center at Cerro Coso College.
CVC also opened a Professional Development Center at El Camino and Santa Monica Colleges.

By 2003, CVC had over 300,000 students taking 4,700 courses from 131 participating colleges and universities, including the following UC campuses: Davis Extension, Irvine, Irvine Extension, Los Angeles Extension, Riverside, San Diego Extension, Santa Barbara Extended Learning Services, and Santa Cruz Extension. The students did not receive degrees from CVC, although they could apply for degrees from the participating colleges and universities and also add to their professional repertoire through CVC. source

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Capital Planning Program
The Capital Planning Program for the University of California began in 1996 in response to the poor seismic ratings received by many buildings and the lack of funds to meet development needs.

The program continued even after its five-year term, in order to address ongoing issues like enrollment capacity and the development of a new UC campuses, such as Merced. The Capital Planning Program works closely with each campus's Long Range Development Plan (LRDP) in order to provide sufficient facilities for each campus's research and educational needs. source

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Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS)

CITRIS was conceived at a Friday afternoon meeting of the UC Berkeley Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS) in September 1999, where professor Eric Brewer suggested the application of information science to biotechnology; Berkeley could be known for creating the software tools that power bioinformatics. This idea was gripping; for the past twenty-five years, EECS research had plowed forth in new directions with very little regard to other fields, and the professors welcomed the chance to work closely with those of other engineering areas, even other disciplines not related to engineering at all.

In February 2000, Professor Paul Gray, then dean of engineering at UC Berkeley, planned a workshop to tackle some of the fundamental problems facing engineers in the coming years, and to map the future of UCB's College of Engineering. The fields of civil, mechanical, electrical, industrial, and materials engineering had retained the same names for fifty years, but computer technology was now pervasive in all disciplines, and even the areas themselves had blended to a certain extent. It was clear that a new, interdisciplinary approach to engineering was required.

CITRIS, as it is operating today, is focused on the broad problems of society, improving the quality of people's lives globally. It involves sociologists and cognitive scientists, experts in policy and technology, and focuses on making the world of tomorrow better, not just colder, more technical and ultimately fragile. source

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College Prep Online (UCCP)
There is no history currently available for this project.

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Committee on Latino Research (UCCLR)
The University of California Committee on Latino Research (UCCLR) is a faculty-governed committee that counsels the UC President on the allocation of funds for research in Chicano and Latino policy issues. The committee meets twice a year to discuss relevant Latino policy and research issues and oversees programs like the Latino Policy Institute (LPI).

UCCLR was originally a subset of the SCR 43 Task Force. The SCR 43 Task Force was formed in 1988 in response to the Senate Concurrent Resolution 43, which commissioned the UC to address Californian Latino issues. source

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Complex Adaptive Matter, Institute for (ICAM)
The Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter (ICAM) was established in 1999 and later, in April 2002, officially became a Multidisciplinary Research Program of the University of California.

ICAM sought to advance the science field by supporting research and exploration of the chemical, physical, and biological aspects of complex adaptive matter. With funding from multiple institutions, including the Office of the President and non-UC institutions, ICAM was a geographically and academically diverse research program. By 2004, its slate of affiliated institutions included, in addition to four UC campuses (UCD, UCI, UCR, & UCSD), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Chicago, Princeton University, Rutgers University, Sandia National Laboratory, and Cambridge University. source

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Continuing Education in Medicine and the Health Sciences
Continuing Education in Medicine and the Health Sciences at the San Francisco Medical Center was officially established at the end of World War II to provide postgraduate training for practicing physicians, particularly those returning to private practice from the armed forces. In following years, the department's activities expanded to serve nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, dietetics, physical therapy, x-ray technology, medical laboratory technology, and veterinary medicine. Between 1945 and 1965, the annual course offerings grew in number from less than a dozen to more than a hundred; total attendance, from less then five hundred to more than eighteen thousand.

The department provided a strong link between the Medical Center and the physician or health professional who had completed his formal training. Its function was both to disseminate important changes in concept and practical medicine and to review areas of previous training. Programs ranged from one-, two- and three-day courses to those of several weeks duration and brought together leading clinical and laboratory investigators from the University and other centers to present the most up-to-date concepts in medical research and practice.

To keep in close touch with the practicing physician in his own community, continuing education initiated a series of two-way radio conferences in 1964, reaching over seventy hospitals in California, Oregon, and Nevada. In 1965, the conferences were expanded to include the fields of nursing, pharmacy and postgraduate dentistry.

The department has received worldwide recognition for its major symposia on paramedical issues of broad concern to both health professionals and laymen. Started in 1959, these symposia brought together world leaders from several disciplines, and covered such topics as "A Pharmacologic Approach to the Study of the Mind," "Man and His Environment: The Air We Breathe," "Man and Civilization: Control of the Mind," "Alcohol and Civilization," "The Potential of Woman," "Man Under Stress," "The Family's Search for Survival," "The Uncertain Quest: The Teen-Ager's World," "Food and Civilization," and "The Challenge to Women: The Biologic Avalanche." Audiences of approximately fifteen hundred attended the Medical Center and hundreds of thousands were reached through radio, live television and videotape broadcasting, the Voice of America, and other media.

Eventually, Continuing Medical Education programs were established on four UC campuses in addition to the San Francisco campus: Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, and San Diego. source

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Continuing Education of the Bar
The Continuing Education of the Bar program was created in 1947 by the University of California to further educate practicing lawyers in their field. Their primary concern is creating products, including books, guides, tapes, CDs, and web products which sharpen the writing and research abilities of their clients. Their Practice Libraries, for example, are set up to provide fast, searchable, online databases with authoritative answers to real legal problems. It served as a model for many other Continuing Law Education (CLE) programs in other states, and remains a trusted tool for lawyers who wish to stay competitive and proficient in all areas of the law. source

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Cooperative Extension
Cooperative Extension's predecessors include "Farmers' Institutes," outreach programs of the mid- and late-18th century, in which a speaker would be commissioned to give a day or several days of lectures on a topic of interest to farmers. A series of federal legislative acts created Cooperative Extension, though it was not conceived under that name or any other official title: it, like the farms and farmers it targetted, grew organically. The Morrill Act of 1862, which authorized the creation of land grant colleges in every state, stipulated that agriculture and home economics must be included in the university curriculum. Later, the Hatch Act (1887) provided funds for agricultural experiments and a partnership between land grant colleges and the USDA. Soon after, knowledge began to flood farm journals and mailing lists, and Farmers' Institutes were provided by the University of California College of Agriculture beginning in 1891. In 1897, the university created the Department of University Extension in Agriculture, headed by E. J. Wickson. Under Wickson, the university hosted more Farmers' Institutes, received state funding for the program in 1903, and ushered in correspondence courses, which remained popular for twenty years to come.

Railroad companies added to the development of Cooperative Extension by sponsoring agricultural "demonstration trains." By educating farmers and increasing productivity, the railroads and the greater nation reaped the benefits of commerce growth. In California, the Southern Pacific Railroad, in cooperation with the university, covered more than 7,430 miles, attracting 176,287 visitors.

In the early 1900s, President Theodore Roosevelt launched his famed Commission on Country Life, which warned of the "incubus of ignorance and inertia" spreading over rural America. The growing concern over rural life paved the way for the Smith-Lever Act of 1914, which received funding through the USDA and the land grant colleges, and placed farm advisors in every county, setting the stage for the Cooperative Extension Program of today.

The farm advisors educated and assisted farmers with their knowledge free-of-charge, as well as provided support for community organizations such as farm bureaus. The Smith-Lever Act also supported home economics instruction; the University of California hired several agents to give presentations and lectures on canning, jelly making, nutrition, and even first-aid. The university helped to form boys' and girls' agricultural clubs, which sponsored education and contests in animal or crop production, with the winner usually getting a trip to Berkeley or Davis. Starting in 1914, the clubs even sponsored three-week, nine-thousand-mile, transcontinental tours of twenty-four states to see cities and historic landmarks.

During World War I, Extension encouraged farmers to produce more by using better livestock-raising techniques, and in cooperation with the YMCA, Boy Scouts, California Industrial Welfare Association, and the Women's Land Army, Extension organized retired farmers, students, and women to help with seasonal farm work. As a result of these efforts, California shipped more food per capita to the Allies than any other state in the union.

Following the Armistice, Cooperative Extension turned its efforts to better sustained-farming techniques and aided in the production of specialty crops (the price of staples like wheat collapsed after the war). Extension also loaned out forms for the creation of septic systems, ensuring the safe disposal of sewage, and conducted week-long classes on how to adjust and repair tractors, which were appearing on many farms for the first time in the 1920s. As many people moved westward, the specter of land speculation swept over the land. Again, farm advisors stepped in to help people with less capital and poorer land to realize their dreams. Courses were also offered in diversified growing, encouraging the planting of figs, avocados, olives, citrus fruits, and other less common crops, with the goal in mind of rotating harvests and more effective year-round use of land and labor.

The crux of the 1930s brought the stock market crash, which ushered in the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl, three years of crippling draught in the Midwest, which made times hard for both Extension and farmers. Despite these difficulties, Cooperative Extension continued to disseminate scientific knowledge in farming. Experiment stations conducted research in the importance of microelements like zinc, molybdenum and manganese in effective crop production. In certain parts of the San Joaquin Valley, extraordinary improvements were seen in production after a single season's treatment for micronutrient deficiency. Extension also demonstrated proper methods for disease and pest control. In 1932, the division of agricultural engineering drew up plans for efficient, economical barns and silos, and distributed more than five thousand plans by mail. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration helped stabilize agriculture prices through contracts with individual growers, and the farm advisors assisted their county constituents in preparing the paperwork and certifying their farms.

Real economic recovery did not start until World War II. Immediately following the Pearl Harbor bombings, Extension stepped in to fill its role in rural areas. They held meetings and distributed leaflets on how to blackout buildings to protect against bombing and how to prevent fires. In imitation of Britain's Home Guard, they promoted and helped organize militias composed of volunteer riflemen to protect against paratroopers and other invading forces. Cooperative Extension ran the "Victory Garden" program in California, which instructed people on how to produce vegetables and maintain poultry houses and rabbit hutches to sustain themselves. Also, with so many men being called up for the war, Cooperative Extension created farm labor offices and programs, claiming to have employed one-and-three-quarter-million farm jobs in a two-and-a-half-year period.

The 1950s were an era of rapidly advancing technology; the so-called "second agricultural revolution," saw farmers shifting away from animal power entirely to mechanized farm implements, as demand for product swelled and competition forced farms of all sizes to upgrade their equipment. The nation, and California in particular, was moving towards the cities. By the end of the decade, even as the population of the state increased by two-thirds to over ten million, the farm population dropped from 670,000 to 568,000. As the methods of farming and types of growing became more specialized, the new director of Cooperative Extension, J. Earl Coke, moved towards a decentralized structure for Extension. The state was organized into districts of six to ten counties, to be supervised by six regional directors.

4-H programs widened to include more than rural boys and girls. More egalitarian projects were organized than previously available, such as rural electricity, tractor maintenance, and entomology; they even raised seeing-eye dogs for the blind. In some cases, 4-H programs extended research, as in the 1950s Butte County project, where club members conducted trials feeding livestock with almond hulls. The hulls, previously burned, were shown to provide satisfactory nutrition for cattle and could be used as a supplementary income for almond growers.

As early as 1945, Cooperative Extension was conducting outreach to poor families and migrant farm workers. Initially, only two advisors in six San Joaquin counties worked to educate these farmers, teaching them how to use surplus commodities and skills to improve their standard of living, with emergency funds from the state and support from the Rosenberg Foundation. In 1955, the Smith-Lever Special Needs funds paid for three full-time advisors in Kings and Fresno Counties and several part-time workers in Los Angeles county.

In 1962, California became the most populous state in the union. As produce became an increasingly international concern prompting rapid mechanization, many smaller farmers got left behind, prompting the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. Much good farm land was consumed by suburban sprawl, and entire industries began to shift north. Throughout this shift, Extension projects continued; soil surveys in San Joaquin Valley, strawberry planting time experiments, and alfalfa evaluations helped to further refine the science of agriculture. As the age of independent commercial growers came to a close, Cooperative Extension's clientele shifted towards part-time farmers, public lands officials, turf growers, golf course managers, and landscapers. Home visits became rare, but Extension offices produced more publications and held larger (though less frequent) meetings than ever before.

During the late 60s, 4-H was granted a new task: to establish offices and programs in low-income urban areas. State funds were allocated for urban youth work, and some counties developed experimental programs which adapted their philosophy to the new environment. Within a space of only five years, 4-H membership went from 37,000 to 50,000, with twenty percent of that number from urban areas.

In the 1960s, the individual UC campuses became more autonomous, and for the first time, executive officers, dubbed "chancellors" were appointed to the individual campuses. As a state-wide organization, Cooperative Extension remained relatively centralized. At the same time, the Experiment Station's personnel, who were all affiliated with particular departments, began to drift into more specialized discipline-oriented work. A joint statement from Director George B. Alcorn and Agricultural Experiment Station Director Clarence Kelly clarified the roles of the two symbiotic organizations: the experiment station would conduct pure scientific research and long-term projects, while Extension would conduct field work and adapt those findings to solve short-term problems.

These were not the only major shifts in university administration. In 1967, Governor Ronald Reagan cut the University of California budget by 10.4 percent. In response to the strained conditions, many Extension staff personnel were encouraged to retire early or resign. Overall staff employment dropped to 464; the Family and Consumer Science unit (formerly Home Economics) was hit the hardest, and lost 15 full-time positions, a third of its number.

Fortunately, in 1969, the USDA organized EFNEP, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program, to improve the diets of low-income families. This attracted federal funding to Food and Consumer Sciences, which was revitalized in the early 1970s. With its new focus, the Food and Consumer Science division would be more geared towards disseminating science-based information on proper nutrition and consumer economics than teaching skills. They targeted their programs at the broadest audience possible, and were particularly interested in educating physicians, nurses, dieticians, and social workers, who could pass their information on to many people. source

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