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University of California: Universitywide and Affiliated Institutions


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Labor & Employment, Institute of (ILE)
Latino Policy Institute (LPI)
Lawrence Berkeley National Labs
Lawrence Livermore National Labs
Linguistic Minority Research Institute, University of California (UC LMRI)
Los Alamos National Labs

Labor & Employment, Institute of (ILE)
In July of 2000, an act of the California State Legislature established the Institute of Labor and Employment. The ILE would serve as a driving force behind labor research in the state as well as an interface between the state's labor community and the University of California.

A 15-person Transition Team appointed by the Office of the President (UCOP) began developing the ILE. The formation of the ILE involved collaboration with UCLA and UCB's Institutes of Industrial Relations (IIRs) and their Centers for Labor and Research. The two directors of UCLA and UCB's IIRs, Paul Ong and Jim Lincoln, respectively, became co-directors of the Transition Team. By 2001, Professors and Researchers such as Ruth Milkman, Michael Reich and Peter Olney had joined ILE's leadership team.

The ILE currently supports academic research, education, and service programs centered on the theme of labor throughout the state and on all the UC campuses. source

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Latino Policy Institute (LPI)
The Latino Policy Institute began operations in 1990 as the Latino Policy Research Program. It later was renamed the Latino Policy Institute, but continued to facilitate research on issues affecting policy and Latino and Chicano populations in California.

The institute provides funding through grants for University of California researchers. The research is then made available to Californian policymakers through briefings and technical reports. Policymakers may even commission the researchers to write a report on a specific topic. In addition to influencing policy, the institute also provides reports and briefs for the general public through the California Policy Research Center (CPRC) website (http://www.ucop.edu/cprc).

LPI is housed in the CPRC and is overseen by the UC Committee on Latino Research (UCCLR). source

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Lawrence Berkeley National Labs
Lawrence Radiation Laboratory grew out of the invention of the cyclotron in 1929 by the late Ernest O. Lawrence. The cyclotron proved to be the most effective tool for generating high-energy beams of nuclear particles with which to explore the atomic nucleus.

A beam of particles was accelerated for the first time successfully in a cyclotron at Berkeley on January 2, 1931, when an energy level of 80,000 volts was achieved with protons in a 4.5-inch instrument made of brass and sealing wax. In 1948, the era of high-energy physics in the laboratory was initiated when the 184-inch cyclotron produced man-made mesons for the first time. With this, the Bevatron, the antiproton (1955) and the antineutron (1956) were discovered. After the liquid hydrogen bubble chamber and associated data reduction equipment (for particle detection and analysis) were developed in the laboratory, the Bevatron was the source of the discovery of numerous new particles of matter starting in 1959. As of the spring of 1965, the laboratory had accounted for the discovery of about one-third of the approximately 80 known particles and had revolutionized concepts of matter.

The laboratory was also responsible for pioneering the use of cyclotron beams and the application of radioisotopes in biology, medicine, agriculture, and industry. The first radioisotope tracer studies in man were conducted with cyclotron-produced sodium-24 at the University of California Medical Center, San Francisco. The first treatment of human disease, using radiophosphorus in leukemia, was conducted at Berkeley in 1937, and subsequently the first control of a disease (polycythemia) with a radioisotope was achieved. The diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism with iodine-131 was pioneered (1938-42), the first studies of the biological action of heavy particles (neutrons) were conducted in 19 experimental therapy with neutrons was carried on (1938-42). Subsequently (1954), the high-energy beams of protons and alpha particles from the 184-inch cyclotron were used in human therapy, proving to be effective in the control of some pituitary-associated diseases (e.g., acromegaly and Cushing's Disease). Beginning in 1945, carbon 14 was used to elucidate for the first time the intermediate chemistry of photosynthesis.

The Nobel Prize has been awarded to nine members of the staff: Lawrence (1939), Edwin M. McMillan and Glenn T. Seaborg (1951), Owen Chamberlain and Emilio Segré (1959), Donald Glaser (1960), Melvin Calvin (1961), Luis W. Alvarez (1968), and Yuan T. Lee (1986).

From 1941-45, the laboratory was a major national resource for the development of the atomic bomb. The discovery of plutonium (element 94) stimulated the development of the nuclear reactor. The Berkeley laboratory was responsible for developing the electromagnetic separation process for obtaining pure U-235, a process used on an industrial scale at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Cadres of Berkeley scientists helped staff laboratories around the country, including the Radiation Laboratory (radar development) at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the LOS ALAMOS Scientific Laboratory, which was founded under University of California management in 1943.

The Berkeley laboratory is acknowledged to be the prototype of the big, interdisciplinary science laboratory represented by national laboratories in the United States and abroad. By 1936, the unusual size and complexity of the laboratory was already such that the Regents designated it "The Radiation Laboratory," as a discrete administrative unit in the physics department, with Lawrence as director. With the death of Lawrence in 1958, the Regents renamed the laboratory in his honor. Edwin M. McMillan succeeded Lawrence as director. source

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Lawrence Livermore National Labs
When the Soviet Union detonated its first atomic bomb in 1949, the United States' monopoly on fission weaponry was broken, and many American scientists feared that the Soviets would be the first to reach the next step, the hydrogen bomb. Edward Teller, a colleague of Ernest Lawrence at the Los Alamos nuclear weapons lab, believed it was essential to start a second nuclear weapons laboratory; Lawrence not only supported Teller in this, but also wanted Teller to oversee the creation of the lab.

In July 1952, over a year after Teller presented his plan to Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Gordon Dean, a formal act of the Atomic Energy Commission created a new branch of the UC Radiation Laboratory at a formal naval air station in the ranching town of Livermore. 32-year-old Herbert F. York, barely three years out of graduate school, was selected by Lawrence to head the new laboratory. Initially, he created four project areas: "Sherwood" (Magnetic Fusion Program), diagnostic weapon experiments, thermonuclear weapon design, and a general physics research program. The first buildings at Livermore housed the latest UNIVAC electronic computer, and a technology building with a large bay for lifting equipment. Though experts in a variety of fields often developed new technologies on their own, they always tried to uphold Lawrence's vision of synthetic understanding and problem solving.

In the next fifty years, Livermore became a competitor of Los Alamos in the development of nuclear weapons, and also sported great achievements in energy, computing, and medicine by applying its knowledge of the atom to other fields. source

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Lick Observatory
Lick Observatory bears the name of the man who had the means and determination to create the first permanently occupied mountain observatory. In 1875, James Lick, a wealthy and eccentric San Francisco bachelor, set aside the sum of $700,000 for the purpose of ". . .constructing. . .a powerful telescope, superior to and more powerful than any yet made. . .and also a suitable observatory connected therewith." Lick personally selected 4,200-foot Mount Hamilton east of San Jose as the site. When, in accordance with Lick's wishes, the completed observatory built by his board of trustees was turned over to the Regents of the University in 1888, it contained a telescope that met the specifications--the great 36-inch refractor.

In 1895, the second important telescope, a 36-inch reflector presented by Edward Crossley of Halifax, England, was installed on the mountain. The brilliant work of James E. Keeler in photographing stars and nebulae with the Crossley instrument had a great influence in turning the attention of astronomers to the reflector as the telescope of the future. Observations and discoveries with these two telescopes quickly demonstrated the superiority of a mountain site in a good climate for astronomical investigations and in the first dozen years the pioneer venture on Mount Hamilton set the pattern for other major observatories.

The Lick astronomers continued to use these telescopes most productively and established a still-cherished tradition for the extremely efficient use of a beam of starlight. But for 40 years, while large telescopes were being built elsewhere, there were no additions to the principal instruments on Mount Hamilton. In 1939, a twin astrograph designed to map the whole sky through the 20-inch wide-angle lenses was installed with the aid of a gift from the Carnegie Corporation. Finally, in the postwar period, the Lick Observatory resumed its place in the first rank among well-equipped observatories when appropriations from the state of California totaling $2.8 million financed the construction of a 120-inch reflector, the second largest telescope in the world. It went into service in 1959.

Observational research at Lick Observatory has left its mark on nearly every area of modern astronomical investigation: Planets, satellites and comets, double stars, variable stars, star clusters, the chemical constitution of the stars, interstellar matter and its condensation into young stars, the motions of the stars, the nature, number, and internal notions of galaxies, and the strange quasi-stellar objects. Equally important, the observatory has been a strong factor in the outstanding record of the University in training astronomers. Many graduate students from Berkeley who have come to Mount Hamilton to undertake thesis research under the guidance of Lick astronomers have gone on to positions of prominence in teaching and research in other institutions; these include the present directors of the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories in Pasadena and the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Tucson. The Warner Prize of the American Astronomical Society for outstanding achievement by an astronomer not yet 35 years of age has gone six out of 12 times to Berkeley-Lick alumni.

The educational role of the Lick staff will increase as the headquarters of the observatory are moved to the Santa Cruz campus and the staff organizes its own program of formal graduate instruction in astronomy. The historic function of the observatory remains unchanged. Its staff seeks to engage in observational research of the highest quality with ground-based optical telescopes. The instruments on Mount Hamilton, which in recent years have seen steadily increasing use by faculty members and students from the various campuses, will continue to be operated as a University-wide facility. source

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Linguistic Minority Research Institute, University of California (UC LMRI)
The University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute (UC LMRI) was created as a research project in 1984 by the Office of the President. The project was intended to fulfill the State Legislature's suggestion that there be increased study of education policy and practice in relation to linguistic minorities. In 1992, it was established as a Multicampus Research Unit.

Throughout its history, the LMRI upheld its commitment to researching the educational theory and practice related to language minorities. In 1989, the institute launched the UCLA Latino Home-School Research Project, which conducted lengthy interviews with kindergartners. The project continued even through 2001, after many of the kids were over 15 years old.

After 1991, the LMRI began publishing a newsletter to present contemporary research and issues, which often led to increased public awareness. The LMRI also published a few books, one of which was Changing Schools for Changing Students: An Anthology of Language Minority. source

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Los Alamos National Labs
Though devoting about half of its effort towards the peaceful applications of nuclear energy, the laboratory's primary mission remains what it has always been--research and development work on nuclear and thermonuclear weapons and weapons components. The first of such weapons were made entirely by the laboratory, but since the early 1950's the staff has been able to concentrate on the design of nuclear assembly systems, and the actual production of weapons has been taken over by other AEC contractors.

Historically, the laboratory was established with the immediate and sole objective of making a nuclear weapon. Wartime development of the atomic bomb was started in 1942 under the direction of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer undertook investigation of its theoretical possibilities at the Berkeley campus with a small group of well-known physicists. By October 1942, theoretical studies had progressed to the point where actual experimental work was necessary. Several areas in the southwest were surveyed as possible sites, and the decision was made to center the weapon research at Los Alamos, in northern New Mexico.

On January 1, 1943, the University was selected to operate the new laboratory. The first scientists arrived in April to begin their historic research. Work from the start proceeded with speed and intensity. The bottom pole piece of the cyclotron magnet (obtained from Harvard) was not laid in place until mid-April, yet the first experiment was performed early in July 1943.

Theoretical studies first proved the feasibility of a nuclear fission bomb. Differential and integral experiments confirmed it. An actual field test with full instrumentation was to be the next step. A test site was picked--a desolate, desert area near Alamogordo, nearly 300 miles south of Los Alamos.

Early in the spring of 1945 preparations started. Final assembly of the device was made in a deserted ranch house on the night of July 12. Two days later the unit was elevated to the top of a 100-foot tower, and instrumentation began. By pre-dawn of July 16 all was ready, except for the threat of an approaching storm. About 4 a.m. the light rain stopped and the weather cleared. At 5:30 a.m. there occurred the detonation of the world's first nuclear fission bomb with an estimated yield equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT.

Besides weapons development and weapons testing, in the 1960s, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory was active in the following fields: Project Rover, the nation's program to develop a nuclear rocket; Project Sherwood, the nation's program to control a thermonuclear reaction; power reactor research and development; theoretical physics and mathematics; Vela, part of the nation's program to detect nuclear explosions in the earth's atmosphere and in space; accelerators to learn more about the structure of matter--the key not only to the history and structure of the universe, but also to man's immediate environment and very existence; health and biomedical research; and chemistry, metallurgy, and cryogenics. source

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