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University of California: Universitywide and Affiliated Institutions


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University AIDS Research Program (UARP)
University of California Center for Water Resources
University of California College Prep Online (UCCP)
University of California Energy Institute (UCEI)
University of California Humanities Initiative (UCHI)
University of California Humanities Research Institute (UCHRI)
University of California In the Valley
University of California Institute for Mexico and the United States (UC MEXUS)
University of California Washington Center (UCDC)
University of California Television Channel (UCTV)
University Extension
University Press (UC Press)

University AIDS Research Program (UARP)
An act of legislature in 1983 established the UARP, to provide support of meritorious research projects related to AIDS at various nonprofit research institutions. To accomplish this, UARP set up an umbrella of support mechanisms for HIV/AIDS research in California, including investigator-initiated awards, institutional awards, targeted research awards and training awards. source

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University of California Center for Water Resources
See Water Resources, UC Center for

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University of California College Prep Online (UCCP)
There is currently no history available for this project.

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University of California Energy Institute (UCEI)
See Energy Institute, University of California.

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University of California Humanities Initiative (UCHI)
See Humanities Initiative.

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University of California Humanities Research Institute (UCHRI)
See Humanities Research Institute.

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University of California In the Valley
See Valley, UC In the

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University of California Institute for Mexico and the United States (UC MEXUS)
See Mexico and the United States, Institute for

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University of California Washington Center (UCDC)
Since World War 2, the University has had close ties with Washington, and maintained a presence there. The UC Washington Center was created in 1990 as a multi-campus academic center, which grew to occupy an entire floor of the building at 2301 M. Street Northwest, Washington, DC, and encompass eight of the ten university campuses. In January 1999, plans were approved for the UC Washington Center at 1608 Rhode Island Avenue Northwest, which would also house the Office of Federal Governmental Relations, and various multi-campus research units. At the groundbreaking ceremony on October 18th, 1999, President Richard Atkinson, Larry Berman, Kent Vining, Michelle Panor, and Meredith DeHart opened the earth before hundreds of guests, including students, faculty, and staff. The new facility was designed by the firm of Einhorn, Yaffee & Prescott, and built by the Chas. H. Tompkins Company, growing to 11 stories in height out of a former parking lot, and the university took possession of the building on September 25th, 2001.
From the beginning, the Center was envisioned less as a mere extension to the university or a home away from home for students interested in politics, and more as a full-scale university operation, with every university subject from art history to engineering. Programs would include already established internships with the federal government, advocacy groups and the media, as well as classes, academic symposia, forums and lectures. sources

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University of California Television Channel (UCTV)
University television did not begin with UCTV; UCSD-TV (San Diego Channel 35), which disseminated university content to the public at large, was already a great success, and in fact served as a model for its universitywide counterpart. UCTV has benefited greatly from the November 1998 FCC ruling, which stated that 4% of DirectTV and EchoStar's programming was to be set aside for "noncommercial programming of an educational or informational nature." It even stipulated that universities could "share research projects with consumers across the country," which made satellite TV the perfect venue for UCTV. Though President Atkinson started the initiative in 1998, it was not until December 1999 that EchoStar offered channel space on its prime satellite. UCTV went online on January 7th, 2000, and soon expanded to include many California cable systems, as well as a web presence at "www.uctv.tv". sources

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University Extension
Two University of California Presidents, Edward S. Holden and Horace Davis, had urged the creation of extension before the fall of 1891, when the first extension course, The Tragedies of Shakespeare, was presented in San Francisco.

Initially, the concept of extension instruction had been imported from England to eastern universities: in 1816, Rutgers presented the first extension lecturer in America, and Daniel Coit Gilman of Johns Hopkins adumbrated the idea in 1879. At Berkeley, interest was kindled by Professor Charles Mills Gayley's presentation of a paper on the English movement to a small, informal gathering of colleagues. The historic outcome was a consensus that the University's plan of extension, rather than imitating the English system, would be suited to conditions in the state of California.

For the next two years, off-campus courses were offered in history, philosophy, mathematics, and English under an experimental project sanctioned by the Academic Senate. On February 14, 1893, the Regents adopted the extra-mural instruction plan, which officially founded University Extension.

From its earliest beginnings, extension suffered from fiscal and administrative ambivalence. The tuition fee, as a means of finance, was eliminated in 1893 by Martin Kellogg, the University's President pro tempore. Not surprisingly, the policy of prohibiting extra compensation for extension teaching cost extension dearly in faculty support. Despite this, the University's continuing education program grew steadily during the last decade of the nineteenth century.

In 1902, University Extension was reorganized as a self-governing body within the University. President Benjamin Ide Wheeler appointed Professor Henry Morse Stephens director, and from 1902 to 1912 Stephens guided the program through a period of marked expansion--and subsequent decline.

By 1905-06, 19 University Extension Centers had been established, but commuting weekly in an era of inadequate railroad connections posed insurmountable problems for the faculty. A period of adverse economic conditions reversed the growth trend until by 1910-11 the only four extension centers that survived were in Bakersfield, Sacramento, Sonoma, and Watsonville.

University Extension, little integrated as yet into the parent institution, was placed in the role of mendicant. Although some 200 courses in 16 departments had been offered, this record reflected more community support than University initiative. Curtailment of university-level adult education to Californians led to the President's appointment of a Committee on Reorganization, and in 1912 one of the most controversial figures in the history of University Extension, Professor Ira W. Howerth, became director.

Howerth had been dean of University College of the University of Chicago, the first university to establish extension as equal to its residential colleges. When his efforts to provide public service via University of California University Extension met with opposition, Howerth began to work around the departments of the University and refused to appease his detractors. He chafed at restrictions (in a 1917 speech he acidly questioned how refusing to pay faculty members for teaching extension "was supposed to stimulate their enthusiasm--"). Despite his conflict with those who felt that a university should maintain academic detachment from community problems, he achieved several important innovations. District organization was created to literally extend the University to communities remote from the Berkeley campus. The first legislative appropriation for extension came in 1915-1917, with $40,000 to cover the biennium. An attempt to garner state support failed in 1913 after the legislature had passed the University's special request for $50,000 for extension. Subsequently, the governor, in a lengthy statement urging that extension work "be carried on, improved, and broadened..." vetoed the measure!

Howerth pioneered the first short course, a dental institute in 1914, which brought 217 members of the dental profession from California, other states, and Honolulu. Extension's numerous institutes, which today have become the hallmark of the University's continuing education in law, health sciences, and other professions, grew from this early beginning. Other unprecedented moves by that director brought extension teaching into the state's penal institutions; sent traveling exhibits to California high schools; combined correspondence instruction and extension class work to teach occupational skills; collaborated with HASTINGS COLLEGE OF THE LAW and with museums and business firms in California. Howerth also dared to launch a controversial experiment--the Bureau of Municipal Reference--which, with the assistance of the University Library and the California State Libraries, brought University expertise to bear upon community problem-solving.

But the sins of both vocational and secondary level programming and circumvention of University departments were his nemesis. His role with University Extension dissolved mistily, and the turbulent regime of Ira Howerth ended in 1917, two years before his post was officially terminated. That date marked the appointment of Leon J. Richardson, Latin scholar, philologist, poet, and an administrator who prided himself on organizational tranquility and sanguine relations with his fellow academicians.

Under the direction of an Advisory Board of University Extension, Richardson standardized extension work, mending fences through course approval, credit approval, and faculty approval. He guided the University's extra-mural program until his titular retirement in 1938 and taught extension correspondence courses until he was a nonagenarian. (Originator of the phrase, "Lifelong Learning," Richardson was an indefatigable exponent of his own doctrine. Until shortly before his death at 96, he played a daily round of golf and reviewed 150 books each year for the Commonwealth Club of San Francisco.)

The Powell Street building in downtown San Francisco was purchased for an Extension Center during Richardson's directorship. After it was outgrown, extension acquired the former campus of San Francisco State College at 55 Laguna Street, where it offered both daytime and evening courses throughout the year.

The First World War brought sharp advances in enrollment, due to reduced fees for enlisted men and the Armed Forces' need to update the education of military personnel. Before the depression of the 1930's cut enrollment sharply, the University's concern with all segments of society in the state prompted organization of the Bureau of Labor Education in 1922. Labor education at the University was influenced by the tutorial class system in English universities. (It was followed in later years by Engineering Extension, Business Administration Extension and other extension links with the University's schools and departments.)

Two years of study by the University Extension Advisory Board, headed by Armin O. Leuschner, culminated in the Academic Senate's decision in 1931 that extension courses taken for use as degree credit would be limited only by the requirements for the degree itself. Degree credit later became of scant importance to University Extension students since the majority already possessed the baccalaureate.

Upon Richardson's retirement, Boyd Rakestraw, the former business manager, served as acting director for four years until 1942.

Only a man like Baldwin Woods, who believed that whatever was academically desirable was administratively possible, could have guided University Extension successfully through the revisionist era of World War II and the postwar years. Woods, an associate dean of engineering and ultimately a vice-president, had spent his life with the University since joining the faculty in 1908. He remodeled the role of University Extension from a remedial service for adult dropouts to a viable alumni education for every segment of society: the sciences, the professions, business, and industry. Long before many leaders in the community realized that the knowledge explosion had shattered the myth of ever "finishing" one's education, he perceived the huge and unending task of continuing education.

When the California State Bar Association, realizing the threat of professional obsolescence, sought a program that would update lawyers on changes in the legal code, Woods formed a committee of the deans of all accredited schools of law in the state to give technical advice on curriculum. From its inception in 1947 to 1965, Continuing Education of the Bar burgeoned into one of the largest extension programs extant, enrolling three out of every five lawyers in California yearly.

The war also had dramatized gaps in the field of medicine. Continuing Education in Medicine and the Health Sciences, another innovation of the 1940's, rapidly found a permanent academic home within University Extension. In recent years, closed circuit television has carried specialized programs to hospitals in the farthest outposts of the state, where staff members were too remote from a campus to attend extension offerings.

Inducing the major manufacturers to release top echelon personnel during wartime to teach engineering extension was another of Woods' diplomatic achievements. At one point, industry leaders opposed his insistence upon training women for mechanical design and other defense jobs formerly held only by men, but he proved their competence, thus helping to open new occupational opportunities for American women.

Certificate programs--the curricula of integrated course sequences approved by the Academic Senate--required the combined talents of University faculties and professionals in the field to speed up the dissemination of new knowledge. Woods launched it with a certificate in bank management to train prospective bank presidents in the solutions to problems facing the capitalist system. Later certificate programs were designed in nuclear technology, city planning, numerical analysis, propulsion and power conversion systems, and other specialized, synthesized knowledge of vital importance to the state.

The postwar period shaped new needs for University of California University Extension. California was moving toward a highly differentiated system of publicly supported higher education. As more and more of the responsibility for providing degree-credit work shifted to the state colleges and junior colleges, University Extension was freed for the more demanding and innovative role in postgraduate and professional programming.

In 1957, Paul H. Sheats was appointed director of University Extension. Reappointed the following year as dean of University Extension by President Clark Kerr, he brought to the University-wide deanship a lifetime career as an adult education administrator and an international reputation for leadership in the field. Since 1946, when he became the second ranking officer of University Extension, he has made his professorial home in the School of Education on the Los Angeles campus.

When Dean Sheats was first appointed, he proposed to the President that a study of the role of extension was overdue. (The Leuschner Committee Report of 1931 was the last such bench mark: two subsequent committees, in 1947-48 and in 1953, considered what were primarily fiscal problems of extension.) This led to a five-year review of policies at a time when, coincidentally, the entire University was undergoing marked transition and growth. Extension's future came under advisement in a critical climate which included the special Academic Senate Study Committee, President Clark Kerr, the cabinet, the Educational Policy Committee, deans of the professional schools on the various campuses, and many other University groups.

Compounding the internal stress, extension faced difficult developments on two fronts. In an economy move, the 1959 state legislature drastically slashed the support from 16 to nine per cent of the expenditure budget (it had been cut from 24 per cent a few years before.) Simultaneously, the state colleges and junior colleges were seeking expanded jurisdiction that threatened to encroach upon University Extension's programming and income.

When the report, Continuing Education Programs in Higher Education, was approved and acted upon by the legislature in 1963, these problems of fiscal support and differentiation of functions were clarified--if not completely resolved. The Coordinating Council for Higher Education in California recommended in this report a nine percent state support level for University Extension to carry out its responsibilities under the master plan: specifically, the report indicated "University Extension possesses the only statewide organization for Continuing Education programs capable of mounting programs in the complete range of public higher education. Because of this mature organization, it is able to produce, on its own initiative, specialized or general course offerings for the benefit of many groups and publics." The remainder of the budget was earned from fee-income and grant and contract work. Under Dean Sheats' leadership, extension took on national and international responsibilities for Peace Corps training, the Agency for International Development, the National Science Foundation, and many other granting agencies. The majority of its clientele had at least one college degree (on the Riverside campus of extension--77 percent had an A.B. in 1965) and even Nobel Prize winners enrolled in extension programs. The reason was simply that extension offered courses on subjects newly emerging from the research and development stages, which were not yet incorporated into a formal discipline. In engineering and physical sciences, new knowledge was being created so rapidly that extension frequently had to offer courses before textbooks could be prepared on the particular subject. In one five-year period, enrollment in these high-level, specialized, interdisciplinary offerings tripled, climbing from 19,000 to 57,000.

In 1964, at the President's request, Sheats eliminated the northern and southern area offices and instituted direct control from the University-wide dean to campus directors. He also added an associate dean--statewide programs. This marked the first truly functional reorganization of University Extension since its establishment in 1891.

A new cadre of more than 100 professional program planners, brought in and trained under Sheats' leadership, suggested and helped to develop new courses. These specialists, whose knowledge of the particular subject matter was comparable to that of their departmental colleagues, had professional knowledge and experience in adult education not available in American universities until only a few years before the development of the courses.

From the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, the shortage of space limited extension's growth on campuses where the resident student body overtaxed available plant. Except for the San Francisco center and one building in downtown Los Angeles, the only facility owned by University Extension was the Lake Arrowhead Residential Conference Center, acquired in 1957 as a gift from the Los Angeles Turf Club.

The most important trend of the 1960s affecting higher adult education within the University undoubtedly was the interest in extension for community problem-solving. In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson dedicated the Irvine campus. His speech called national attention to the need for an urban extension that would focus on problems of metropolitan areas.

Echoing the urgency, 60 representatives of Academic Senate committees on the nine University campuses gathered for an unprecedented conference for two days in May 1965, under sponsorship of the Academic Senate Committee on University Extension. In an epochal series of resolutions, they demanded greater faculty and fiscal support for extension. They gave primacy to the recommendation that University Extension "develop with the unique resources of academic departments, organized research units, and Extension's existing activities, programs aimed at solutions of the great urban problems... and enrichment of urban life for all."

By 1965, the prospects of greatly expanded financial support for continuing education in American colleges and universities were opening a new chapter in University Extension. While the needs of advancing professionalism were met through an increasingly specialized range of noncredit postgraduate offerings, the statewide extension program broadened its focus to include group problem solving. Just as Agricultural Extension served rural populations, University Extension brought educational resources to bear upon pressing urban issues. source

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University Press (UC Press)
The University of California Press (UC PRESS) is a University-wide department. In the mid-1960s, it had headquarters in Berkeley, editorial offices in Los Angeles and Berkeley, a promotion office in New York City, and two warehouses--one in Richmond and another in Brooklyn. The press was headed by the director, a member of the Academic Senate. Its policies were guided by the Editorial Committee of the senate, which drew its members from all campuses and held monthly meetings in various parts of the state. For administrative and financial matters, the director was responsible to the vice-president of the University and to the Board of Control, consisting of three vice-presidents and two representatives of the Editorial Committee.

The University of California Press was a scholarly publishing organization and was not connected with either the University Printing Department or the Publications Office. In editing, production, and selling, the press operated like a commercial publishing house; it paid standard royalties, had a professional promotion and selling staff, as well as sales representatives throughout the world, including an agency agreement with Cambridge University Press in Great Britain. But the purpose was to disseminate scholarship and not to make money.

The press imprint appears on three general classes of publications: books, monographs in the University Series, and journals. In the mid-1960s, the book program developed rapidly, both in quantity and quality, to the point where the University Press became one of the great scholarly publishing organizations of the world. In 1964-65, 102 book titles were issued. About 650 titles were in print by 1965.

Press books cover a broad range of subject fields, particularly those in which the University itself is strong. In the 1960s, the social sciences and the humanities predominated, but an increasing number of books in the sciences were being issued. Studies of developing areas--Africa, Asia, the Near East, Latin America--were particularly numerous. Translations of scholarly works and of literary classics were published. Some books were brought out in cooperation with a number of English houses and with firms in Bombay, Tokyo, and other world publishing centers. The press did not compete with commercial firms for fiction, original poetry, or textbooks, although it did an occasional experimental textbook, or one that was of particular interest to the University or the state. A few semi-popular books, interpreting scholarly work to the general public, were included in the list. Most of these were in the field of natural history and related to California.

Book manuscripts were chosen by the press staff and judged by the Editorial Committee of the Academic Senate primarily on quality and only secondarily on their sales possibilities. Hence the book program could not be wholly self-supporting, although it did bring back most of its cost in sales. The publishing program was, in essence, an extension of the academic research activities of the faculties of all campuses. Anyone could submit a book manuscript, but only authors connected with the University were eligible for University subsidies. Books that came from other universities, in this country and abroad, and those from non-academics had to sell well enough to pay their own way or had to come with subsidies from foundations or other organizations. Author subsidies were not accepted.

The oldest publishing program of the press is the so-called Scientific Series, a group of monographs in more than 30 subject fields. Between 1893, the year of the appearance of the first two monographs, and 1965, more than 4,000 titles were issued, coming at the rate of about 60 each year. Series authors were required to be members of the University community and were allowed no compensation for their work other than the recognition of other scholars. The series monographs were entirely noncommercial, were completely subsidized from state funds, and were distributed chiefly by the University libraries through an extensive exchange program. The libraries received in return thousands of journals and serial monographs from countries all over the world. It followed that series monographs were not promoted or advertised as the books were, although a few copies were held for sale.

Until the early 1960s, series manuscripts were taken in and judged by boards of editors in the several subject fields before being passed on to the Editorial Committee for final approval and funding. With the growth of campuses other than Berkeley and Los Angeles, this system became unworkable and was replaced with University-wide panels of advisory readers, chosen from all the faculties. Manuscripts were submitted to the press offices in Los Angeles or Berkeley and from there were sent to panel members, as well as to outside readers, for criticism. The final decision to publish or not to publish was made by the Editorial Committee.

As of 1965, the University Press published and distributed eight scholarly journals: California Management Review, Film Quarterly, Nineteenth Century Fiction, Pacific Historical Review, Romance Philology, Western Folklore, The Journal of the History of Philosophy, and Agricultural History. Some of these were published for scholarly societies and others were wholly owned by the University.

The first two series monographs to be issued by the press appeared in 1893. But the Editorial Committee (originally called a Committee on Publications) has been in existence since 1886 and there has been an active printing establishment on campus since 1874. Three men were primarily responsible for press publications. Joseph W. Flinn was appointed University printer in 1887, and held that position until 1932. His successor, Samuel T. Farquhar, assumed editorial responsibilities that hitherto had been a collateral duty of various faculty members. Under his administration, the printing and publishing operations were combined and the present printing plant was constructed. August Fruge, began his tenure as director in 1949, when the printing and publishing activities were once more separated and made independent departments of the press. In 1959, the name University of California Press was assigned solely to the publishing organization. In 1962, the press moved its headquarters from the Printing Department building to the University Extension building at 2223 Fulton Street, Berkeley. It operated there until 1983, when it moved into its own building at 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley. sources

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