The work of Hilgard in laying the foundations of the College of Agriculture is one of the outstanding features of the history of the University. Under Hilgard, scientific instruction and research were encouraged and had a marked influence on similar institutions elsewhere. Building on this foundation, the college developed a distinguished program in teaching and research.
With the urbanization of Berkeley and the growth of the campus, research and teaching programs relating more directly to agricultural production were gradually transferred elsewhere. In the period of post-war planning, the role of the college at Berkeley was carefully considered in relation to the long range academic plan for that campus. This plan specified the areas of instruction and research that should be emphasized, selecting those "which benefit particularily from close association with related disciplines on the campus and which in turn contribute to the strength of related disciplines." The University-wide academic plan of 1961 reiterated the earlier policy, stating that the program in agriculture at Berkeley "should continue to emphasize teaching and Experiment Station research in the basic physical, biological and social sciences, taking advantage of the vast array of scientific resources on that campus to add to the pool of fundamental knowledge upon which advances in agricultural technology depend."
The College of Agriculture at Berkeley accepted this mission and in order to pursue it more effectively, a number of departments were restructured and several fields of emphasis were strengthened. The undergraduate academic program was carefully evaluated, streamlined, and updated. Specialized undergraduate course offerings were reduced or transferred to graduate programs and requirements in the humanities and social sciences increased. By the mid-1960s, the college offered only one principal curriculum, agricultural sciences, with majors in agricultural economics, agricultural science, dietetics, entomology, food science, genetics, nutrition (human), and soils and plant nutrition. However, it also administered related curricula in preforestry, preveterinary, and range management. Because the undergraduate enrollment in the mid-1960s was not large (only about 275), the students had a great deal of personal contact with the faculty. Graduate enrollment increased more rapidly than undergraduate and totaled nearly 350. Graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees were offered in such fields as agricultural chemistry, agricultural economics, entomology, food science, genetics, nutrition, parasitology, plant nutrition, plant pathology, plant physiology, and soil science.
By the mid-1960s, the budgeted College of Agriculture and Agricultural Experiment Station faculty numbered about 130, supplemented by approximately 50 academic specialists, postdoctoral fellows, and extramurally supported researchers distributed through the following units: agricultural biochemistry, agricultural economics, cell physiology, entomology and parasitology (including the Divisions of Biological Control Entomology and Acarology, Invertebrate Pathology, and Parasitology), genetics, nutritional sciences, plant pathology, poultry husbandry, and soils and plant nutrition. Among the special facilities available to students and faculty were the Agriculture and Giannini Foundation libraries which housed distinguished collections of source material in agriculture and agricultural economics; the six and two-tenths-acre Oxford Tract, which contained open plot areas, greenhouses, laboratories, and environmental control cabinets; related facilities at the Gill Tract in Albany; as well as special libraries, electron microscopes, computers, and a wide range of equipment and specialized laboratories maintained by the departments in Agriculture, Giannini, Hilgard, Morgan, and Mulford Halls on the Berkeley campus. source
In 1974, the College of Agriculture was merged with the School of Forestry and Conservation to form the College of Natural Resources.
The 1943 school offered a two-year upper division program leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in business administration and the Master of Business Administration degree. In 1955, the M.B.A. program was transferred to the graduate school; in 1956, the Ph.D. degree in business administration was added. The department and schools were established primarily to prepare students for eventual positions of executive and professional responsibility in private business, or in the business aspects of governmental or other agencies, or, secondarily, for careers in teaching and research. All students were required to have a broad background in the analytical tools and functional aspects of business management. Opportunities for specialization were provided once the basic or core requirements were fulfilled. Included in these fields were administration and policy, accounting, business statistics, finance, industrial relations and personnel management, insurance and risk, international business, marketing, production, real estate and urban land economics, and transportation and public utilities.
By the mid-1960s, the teaching programs were supported by a series of research and community relations affiliates including: the Institute of Business and Economic Research; the Institute of Industrial Relations; the Center for Research in Real Estate and Urban Land Economics and the Management Science Center. Research relations and opportunities also occurred with other agencies such as the National Aero-Space Laboratory, Agricultural Economics, Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, Institute of Governmental Studies, Institute of Social Sciences, Computer Center and Chinese Study Center.
The daytime campus programs of instruction and research were implemented by adult education through University Extension, and executive education under the graduate school. The graduate school in Berkeley in conjunction with the graduate school in Los Angeles published the California Management Review, a scholarly quarterly publication. The Department of Business Administration and the Department of Economics cooperated in the administration of both the Institute of Business and Economic Research and the Business Administration-Economics Library in the Kelsen Graduate Social Science Library. In 1964, the Department and Schools of Business Administration occupied Barrows Hall and the renovated former Stephens Memorial Union Building together with the Departments of Economics, Political Science and Sociology. Eventually, Moses and South Halls became part of the shared building complex.
These shared physical arrangements reflected the desire of the faculty in business administration, while retaining the identity of business administration, to maintain close, direct working relationships with the basic social science disciplines. It was believed that education and research in business administration had the obligation of bringing the advancing knowledge in social science and other disciplines to bear upon problems of business.
The nucleus of the department as established in 1942, consisted of 9 faculty members and 3 teaching assistants drawn from the roster of the Department of Economics. In 1964-65, the department contained 67.85 full-time equivalent faculty and 11 teaching assistants. Faculty members found support from and contributed to a wide variety of teaching and research activities.
At the time of its demise at the end of 1942, the four-year College of Commerce enrolled 671 undergraduate students and 11 graduate students. The peak enrollment of the School of Business Administration was reached during the period of the post-war veteran onrush in 1948-49, when 1,846 students were enrolled, of whom 274 were graduate students. During the spring semester, 1965 there were 627 junior and senior students enrolled in the undergraduate school, 353 candidates for the M.B.A. degree, and 68 candidates for the Ph.D. degree in the graduate school.
The department and schools worked closely with the Placement Center in finding career opportunities for graduates and alumni. The California Business Administration Alumni Association was an effective alumni affiliate. An advisory council of business leaders assisted in channeling the needs and advice of industry and business into the programs. source
The School of Business Administration is now the Haas School of Business.
By 1873, the first building on the Berkeley campus, South Hall, included a chemical laboratory; the legislature had approved a College of Chemistry the previous year, and Willard Bradley Rising had arrived to become its first dean. He was to serve for 36 years, seeing the number of baccalaureate degrees in chemistry rise from about three per year to about 15; a separate building for chemistry in 1890; and a separate College of Natural Sciences in 1893 to accommodate physics, geology, and the biological sciences. In Rising's era the principal activity of any chemist was analysis, particularly of minerals, drugs and agricultural products (Rising also had the title of state analyst). Additions to his staff and their years of service (if five years or more) were: John Maxson Stillman, 1876-82; Edward Booth, 1878-80 and 1899-1917; Edmond O'Neill, 1879-1925; John Hatfield Gray, Jr., 1890-92 and 1896-1900; William John Sharwood, 1892-98; Walter C. Blasdale, 1895-1940; Henry C. Biddle, 1901-1916; William Conger Morgan, 1901-1912; and Frederick G. Cottrell, 1902-1911.
By Rising's retirement in 1908, only four Ph.D. degrees had been awarded in chemistry. In 1912, Gilbert Newton Lewis was brought from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to serve as dean and to build up the graduate and research program. Twenty-nine years later, in 1941, when he relinquished the deanship, the number of undergraduate degrees per year had risen to about 60; there were additional buildings for chemistry--Gilman Hall, Chemistry Auditorium, Freshman Chemistry Lab, and "The Rat House" (Chemistry Annex)--and there had been 250 Ph.D. degrees awarded in chemistry. The additions to his staff and their years of service were: Merle Randall, 1912-44; Richard C. Tolman, 1912-16; William C. Bray, 1912-46; Joel H. Hildebrand, 1913-52; G. Ernest Gibson, 1913-54; Gerald E. K. Branch, 1915-54; C. Walter Porter, 1917-45; Ermon D. Eastman, 1917-45; Wendall M. Latimer, 1917-55; T. Dale Stewart, 1917-57; Axel R. Olson, 1919-54; Thorfin R. Hogness, 1921-30; William Francis Giauque, 1922-62; Gerhard K. Rollefson, 1923-55; Willard F. Libby, 1933-41; Melvin Calvin, 1937 (still on staff in the mid-1960s); Kenneth S. Pitzer, 1937-61; Samuel Rubin, 1938-43; and Glenn T. Seaborg, 1939 (still on staff in the mid-1960s).
Lewis's scientific reputation had been built on his work in chemical thermodynamics, and though he had other interests (e.g., the Lewis electron-pair theory, the Lewis acid-base theory, the discovery of deuterium), many of his staff were thermodynamicists, and Berkeley became known as a center of thermodynamics. The Lewis and Randall textbook, Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances (1923), was a landmark; there was Latimer's work in systematizing the entropies of acqueous ions, Giauque's extensive low-temperature program for which he was to receive the Nobel Prize in 1949, and Pitzer's work on the thermodynamics of molecules with internal rotation.
The last decade of Lewis's deanship saw, along with Ernest Lawrence's development of his cyclotron, the involvement in nuclear chemistry of Berkeley faculty members, particularly of Libby (who was to receive a Nobel Prize in 1960 for his carbon-14 method of dating archaeological specimens) and of Seaborg (who was to share a Nobel Prize with McMillan in 1941 for the discovery of plutonium). The first Geiger counter in the United States and the first radium-beryllium neutron source were assembled by Berkeley chemists. In World War II, Berkeley chemists played a key part in the atomic bomb project. In the mid-1960s, Berkeley remained one of the centers for research in nuclear synthesis and spectroscopy as well as for the tracer applications of radioisotopes. For example, when quantities of carbon-14 became available in 1947, Calvin began a program of research on the path of carbon in photosynthesis for which he was to receive a Nobel Prize in 1961.
Upon Lewis's retirement as dean, the post was taken by Wendell M. Latimer, who held it for eight years (1941-49). Latimer's principal task was to rebuild the staff, which had been depleted by deaths and retirements; he took the opportunity to strengthen the department in radiochemistry, and to bring in a strong staff in chemical technology (later to become a full-fledged Department of Chemical Engineering) and in synthetic and structural organic chemistry. The additions to his staff (and years of their appointment) were: Edwin F. Orlemann, 1941; Robert E. Connick, 1942; William D. Gwinn, 1942; James Cason, 1945; William G. Dauben, 1945; Leo Brewer, 1946; Burris B. Cunningham, 1946; George Jura, 1946; Isadore Perlman, 1946; Richard E. Powell, 1946; Henry Rapoport 1946; David H. Templeton, 1947; Donald S. Noyce, 1948; Chester T. O'Konski, 1948; George C. Pimentel, 1949; and Kenneth Street, Jr., 1949.
In 1948, Lewis Hall was built for chemistry.
In 1951, Kenneth Pitzer returned from a period as director of research of the Atomic Energy Commission to take up the deanship of chemistry at Berkeley, and held it for nine years (1951-60), leaving in 1961 to accept the presidency of Rice University. Additions to his staff and the dates of the appointments were: Rollie J. Myers, Jr., 1951; William L. Jolly, 1952; John 0. Rasmussen, 1952, Andrew Streitwieser, Jr., 1952; Frederick R. Jensen, 1955; Norman E. Phillips, 1955; Bruce H. Mahan, 1956; Ignacio Tinoco, Jr., 1956; Harold S. Johnston, 1957; Samuel S. Markowitz, 1958; and David A. Shirley, 1960.
In 1960, Robert E. Connick became dean. In 1963, Latimer Hall was built for chemistry and another building was completed in early 1966. The number of bachelor's degrees in chemistry rose by 1965 to about 100 annually, the number of Ph.D. degrees to more than 50. source
In 1931, funds were allotted to establish a criminology program in the regular session. A committee was appointed which resulted in an approved curriculum of criminology as a group major in 1933. In 1939, a Bureau of Criminology was organized in the Department of Political Science and in 1950, the School of Criminology was established. A curriculum leading to the master's degree was approved in 1947. The first one was awarded in June, 1949. The Ph.D. degree was approved in 1963 and first awarded in September, 1963.
In 1969, the School of Criminology had two primary objectives: to prepare students for teaching and career services and for policy and administrative positions in agencies, both private and public, engaged in the administration of criminal and juvenile justice or concerned with public safety, security, the prevention of criminality and delinquency and the apprehension and treatment of the criminal; and to conduct research in the measurement, prevention, repression, detection, and treatment of criminality and delinquency.
In the original design of the undergraduate curriculum, instruction was divided into three main branches: law enforcement, corrections, and criminalistics. Commencing with the academic year 1961-1962, the design was changed to provide a comprehensive undergraduate program in general criminology with special provision for students in criminalistics. Course work in both lower division and in the school was designed to build an appreciation of the general historical, legal, biological, psychological, medical, and political conditions of criminology. The graduate program afforded opportunities for advanced study and research in the areas of the etiology of crime, criminalistics ties, law enforcement and corrections.
In the fall of 1964, there were 119 undergraduate and 75 graduate students enrolled in the school. The teaching complement, including part-time staff and personnel with joint appointments in criminology and other University departments, numbered approximately 30. There were approximately 45 upper division criminology courses ranging from general introduction to field studies and individual research. The 25 graduate courses, three-quarters of which were of the seminar variety, covered such diverse areas as crime and the political process, prediction methods in probation and parole, and seminars in psychologic theory of criminality and problems of criminal responsibility. Concurrently, with the increase in faculty, curriculum, and students in the 1960s, there was increased attention devoted to research into various aspects of the problems of crime and crime control. As of January 1, 1965, financial grants from foundations, private organizations and the federal government were funding research into the federal probation and parole system; evolution of delinquent patterns among adolescents; use of narcotic drugs; labeling process as it relates to delinquency and schools; development of training materials for police, probation, and court personnel; evaluation of specialized training on management from institutions housing youthful offenders; and preparation of curriculum material for teachers as it relates to crime in connection with cultural deprivation. source
The School of Criminology no longer exists as such.
The Vrooman Act of February 14, 1887, provided financing that made possible the establishment of new departments at the University including a Department of Pedagogy. On May 14, the Regents announced their intention "to establish a course of instruction in the science and art of teaching as soon as the same can be properly organized." The search for a qualified professor ended in 1892 when Elmer Ellsworth Brown was appointed associate professor of the science and art of teaching.
During the first two years, Professor Brown taught nearly all of the courses and guided graduate students in the preparation of master's theses and doctor's dissertations. Rapidly increasing enrollments led to the department's expansion in 1894 and 1897. Directed student observation of teaching was provided in the Berkeley and Oakland schools. Some University departments operated in developing methods courses in accordance with Brown's suggestions.
In 1898, his title was changed to professor of the theory and practice of education. Two years later, the title of Department of Education was adopted. Among other staff appointments made was that of an examiner of schools, in 1903, to spend one-half year examining high schools and the other half teaching in the department. By January, 1906, the Department of Education enrolled the largest number of graduate students in the University.
In June, Professor Brown resigned. Six months later, Alexis F. Lange, dean of the College of Letters, was also appointed department chairman.
The department's purposes were expanded to include the training of school administrators and the preparation of teachers for normal schools and university departments of education. Between 1907 and 1923, many specialists were added to meet recognized needs: practice teaching, history of education, educational sociology, educational administration, vocational education, educational psychology, elementary education, secondary education, and educational statistics.
On March 11, 1913, the School of Education was established. Its membership included the faculty of education and representatives of other departments "whose subject matter is represented in the high school curricula." Professor Lange was given the additional title of director of the School of Education. Administration of its various programs was the responsibility of the department.
Administration was vested in the department also as stipulated in the contract between the Regents and the Oakland Board of Education, in 1914, in establishing the University High School. The school board employed a "supervisory teaching force nominated by the Department of Education." During the next few years, the high school department heads gradually assumed responsibilities for teaching the special methods courses and demonstrating teaching, which most University professors were glad to forego. These developments led to the University's gradual employment of supervisors of directed teaching.
The upgrading of elementary school teachers and increased graduate offerings by 1921 influenced the establishment of the University Elementary School. The Regents and the Berkeley Board of Education cooperatively established the laboratory school for the "purpose of research, observation, and demonstration teaching."
Between 1916 and 1921, the University developed a new program leading to the degree, doctor of education. The department was made responsible for it under the jurisdiction of the School of Education and the Graduate Division.
In 1923, William W. Kemp was recalled from the San Jose State Teachers College presidency to succeed Dean Lange. To meet the greatly increasing enrollments, the staff was considerably expanded. In January, 1924, Haviland Hall was completed to house the department. About that time, the Oakland school board completed the modern University High School, designed to meet the University's needs. At the request of the College of Agriculture, a cooperatively administered master of education degree was established.
Frank N. Freeman became dean in 1939. The increased enrollment under the "G.I. Bill" and efforts to meet the critical shortage of teachers led to further expansion of the faculty. Adult education was developed in cooperation with the Extension Division. At the request of the Department of Physical Education, a cooperative program was evolved leading to the doctor of education degree.
In 1950, William A. Brownell became dean. An almost entirely new staff revised the programs leading to higher degrees. The number of doctoral candidates increased considerably. Counseling psychology and higher education were added specializations. Experimental programs in the preparation of teachers were instituted.
Theodore L. Reller was appointed dean in 1962. Shortly afterward, Tolman Hall was completed and the entire department was finally housed in one building. Continuing the department's teacher education functions, it emphasized increasingly its doctoral degrees and research programs. It began, also, the intensive reorganization of all courses to conform to the change to the quarter system.
In the mid-1960s, the department employed more than 200 people distributed approximately as follows: 45 professors, 45 supervisors, 60 research personnel and graduate student research and teaching assistants, and 55 secretarial and clerical personnel.
By the mid-1960s, 1,100 students were working for higher degrees and credentials. Three hundred and fifty were enrolled in the doctorate programs, each year approximately 20 being awarded the Ph.D., and 30, the Ed.D. degree. Also 150 enrolled for the M.A. degree, 65 attaining it annually. Each year, 550 students were recommended for a credential: 150 elementary, 250 secondary, 75 junior college, and 75 administrative, guidance and special services. source
Early study in the technical colleges was a combination of the science and art of engineering with humanities and foreign language. But the practice of engineering was not neglected. The staff and students installed most of the college's machinery and facilities and contributed to the development of campus equipment. Joseph N. LeConte was appointed assistant professor in the College of Mechanics in 1892 and later professor of mechanical engineering, serving until his retirement in 1937. He wrote of the 1890-1900 period when the only local electrical power was generated in the engineering laboratory: "Our library (Bacon Hall) had never been lighted at night. . . . Authority was granted to set a line of poles from the Electrical Laboratory to the Library and South Hall. . . . On these were strung the wires of the 'power circuit' and the single loop of wire for arc lamps. . . . The lighting service on the grounds consisted of about 10 open arc lamps in series. . . .This string of antediluvian arc lamps was the bane of Cory's (Professor Clarence L. Cory, for whom Cory Hall is named) and my existence, and we often made nocturnal trips around the circuit to see if all were in operation. I remember one night when President Kellogg was giving his annual reception, three lamps went out of action at critical locations, so that we in our dress suits climbed the poles and got them going while on our way to the reception."
Engineering kept pace with the growth and development of the campus, having approximately 3,000 students enrolled in the college by the mid-1960s. About 1,200 were graduate students. The first engineering bachelor's degree was granted in 1873 in the College of Civil Engineering, the first master's degree in 1896, and the first doctoral degree in 1894. Through June of 1965, the college and its antecedents granted 17,187 bachelor's, 3,338 master's, and 506 doctoral degrees. Engineering alumni made a substantial contribution to the development of the state and the nation. The college staff continued to maintain leadership in engineering instruction, in important research, and as consultants with government and private agencies in all areas of engineering.
As a result of the increased research tasks during the early 1940s which were supported by off-campus agencies, the college established the Institute of Engineering Research in 1948, which became the Office of Research Services of the college. Expenditures on sponsored research activities averaged over $6 million a year by the mid-1960s. These activities were directed by staff members, manned largely by graduate students, administered by the Office of Research Services, and much of the work was done with facilities located at the Richmond Field Station.
Engineering at Berkeley provided active staff participation and supervision in the Engineering Extension course and conference programs of service to the people of the state. By the mid-1960s, approximately 2,500 extension students each year continued their education through this service administered at Berkeley. Engineering Extension also assisted with the administration of other special technical conferences and meetings which were arranged by engineering staff members. The dean of the college, George Maslach, followed a long line of notable leaders in the field of engineering education, application, development, and research: Deans Frank Soulé (civil, 1896-1907), Friedrich G. Hesse (mechanics, 1896-1901), Samuel B. Christy (mining, 1896-1914), Clarence L. Cory (mechanics, 1901-29), Andrew C. Lawson (mining, 1914-18), Charles Derleth, Jr. (civil, 1907-29 and engineering, 1929-42), Frank H. Probert (mining, 1918-40), Lester C. Uren (mining, acting, 1940-41), Donald H. McLaughlin (mining, 1941-42, and engineering, 1942-43), Morrough P. O'Brien (engineering, 1943-59), and John R. Whinnery (engineering, 1959-63). Each added to the stature and eminence of the college. source
The establishment of this new college was recommended on the basis of a three-year comprehensive study by a joint committee of the three departments involved. The name of the college reflected the conviction of the committee as expressed in its statement, "each profession shares with the other two a common interest in the complex task of organizing and designing the physical environment for human needs."
In 1963, the research interests of departments within the college, as well as departments and individuals throughout the University, were furthered by establishment of an Institute of Urban And Regional Development. A unit within the institute, the Center for Planning And Development Research, was particularly oriented to interests of the college.
In 1964, the Department of Decorative Art, formerly in the College of Letters and Science, was added to the college although its undergraduate curriculum leading to the bachelor of arts degree was still offered by the College of Letters and Science. In 1965, the department's name was changed to Department of Design.
Prior to the establishment of the College of Environmental Design, these four units evolved separately: the College of Architecture from its beginning in 1903 as a department in a College of Social Sciences; the Department of City and Regional Planning established as an independent department in 1948; the Department of Design from a Department of Household Art started in 1919 in the College of Letters and Science; and the Department of Landscape Architecture from a Division of Landscape Gardening and Horticulture established in 1913 in the College of Agriculture.
In the mid-1960s, the dean of the college was Martin Meyerson, who was appointed in 1963, following the retirement of Wurster. All the departments of the college and the Institute of Urban and Regional Development were housed in William W. and Catherine B. Wurster Hall, which was completed in the fall of 1964. source
The new division was established in the College of Agriculture. The first courses were offered in the spring of 1914 by Assistant Professor Merritt Pratt. Professor Walter Mulford, who previously had headed the forestry school at Cornell, was placed in charge of the new program and took office on August 1, 1914. He remained as its head until he retired in 1947. Under his leadership, the original Division of Forestry grew into a full-fledged department in 1939. In 1946, the School of Forestry was established with Mulford as its first dean. By the mid-1960s, preparation for admission to the school continued to be offered in the College of Agriculture in the form of a lower division pre-forestry curriculum.
Initially, the school consisted of the single Department of Forestry conducting both teaching programs and a program of organized research within the Agricultural Experiment Station. In 1950, the school was enlarged by addition of the Forest Products Laboratory, later located at the Richmond Field Station, which functioned as a research division in the experiment station.
The first academic program offered in 1914 consisted of a curriculum in forestry leading to the B.S. degree and programs of graduate study leading to the M.S. degree in forestry. With minor variations, the undergraduate offering continued to be limited to a single major, but graduate instruction steadily expanded in scope. When the school was established in 1946, the professional master of forestry degree was added to the University's offerings; in 1960, award of the Ph.D. degree in forestry was authorized. In addition, the forestry faculty worked closely with members of other departments in the development of formal graduate programs of interest to foresters. Thus, they participated actively in graduate group programs in agricultural chemistry, plant physiology, range management, and wood technology. In cooperation with the College of Agriculture at Berkeley and Davis, members of the school faculty also offered B.S. and M.S. degree programs in the field of range management.
Initial enrollment growth was modest. Up to 1930, the number of degrees granted rarely exceeded ten bachelor's and five master's degrees annually. During the late 1930s and again a decade later, undergraduate numbers increased greatly. Eighty or more bachelor's degrees were granted in both 1939 and 1950. After 1955, however, the size of the school became relatively stable. Bachelor's degrees awarded averaged 35 per year, master's degrees, ten, and Ph.D. degrees (including those in related departments), about six.
A unique feature of the undergraduate forestry curriculum was the Summer Field Program required of all students at the end of the sophomore year. This ten-week academic course was taught at Meadow Valley in the Sierra Nevada, where a 50-man camp, established in 1917, provided opportunity for both field instruction and the development of close acquaintanceship among students and between students and faculty. This camp, along with Blodgett Forest Research Station, a 3,000-acre experimental forest also in the Sierra Nevada, provided students and faculty with major forest facilities for teaching and research.
The faculty of five men who established the initial program in 1914 was gradually expanded. By the mid-1960s, it included 19 members. These men divided their time about equally between teaching and organized forestry research which the school conducted within the Agricultural Experiment Station. This division of labor made it possible to have on the teaching staff men who were well qualified in each of the numerous specialized aspects of forestry. By the mid-1960s, more than 40 active research projects were under way in forest ecology, wildland management, wood science and technology, and forest economics. In addition to the research information they produced, these projects provided a valuable training ground for the many graduate students who served as research assistants in them.
In research, as in teaching, the faculty recognized that an important part of its function was to bring all the available resources of the University to bear on the full array of biological and social problems arising from man's use of the forest. As a consequence, close informal ties developed between forestry and many other faculties on the Berkeley campus. The school made many significant contributions to forestry research, including Joseph Kittredge Jr.'s pioneer work on the effect of vegetation on water storage and snow melt and Arthur W. Sampson's studies of the role of fire in vegetation succession. F. S. Baker's Theory and Practice of Silviculture was the first American textbook in its field and was regarded as a classic in forestry literature. By the mid-1960s, of the 99 living fellows of the professional Society of American Foresters, eight were University graduates and nine were present or former members of the school faculty.
Although the undergraduate forestry curriculum continued to be vital to the successful operation of the School of Forestry, graduate study received increasing emphasis over the years. Berkeley provided an unrivaled opportunity to build strong programs of graduate work in forestry because of the availability of strong supporting departments. The success of the school's efforts to capitalize on these opportunities was evidenced by the number of alumni who achieved distinction in such varied research fields as forest genetics, forest economics, forest soils, and ecology; in teaching; in private forest industries; and in public forest administration. source
In 1974, the School of Forestry and Conservation was merged with the College of Agriculture to form the College of Natural Resources.
Succeeding Raymond as departmental chairman, Robert W. Desmond came to the campus in 1939 as professor and the single faculty member for the group major. Desmond served as chairman from 1939 to 1954 and again as acting chairman in 1962-63. The group major in journalistic studies developed into a full major in journalism in 1941, with three faculty members, two lower division, and nine upper division courses. In addition to news writing, reporting, and editing, courses included history of journalism, contemporary editorial problems, newspaper management, and press and world affairs.
In 1951, the department introduced the graduate program leading to the degree of master of journalism. In addition to the lower and upper division courses preparing for the major, ten graduate courses were offered in the academic year 1951-52. When Philip F. Griffin became the department's third chairman, a post he was to hold from 1954 to 1959, the department's faculty had grown to ten. The course offerings included one in the lower division, 16 in the upper division, and seven in the graduate division Professor Charles M. Hulten has served as chairman after 1959. By 1959, the upper division courses increased to 21 and the graduate courses to nine. As of 1965, the department offered one lower division, 20 upper division, and 11 graduate level courses. Courses included magazine article writing, press and society, research methods and analytical studies, press law, radio journalism, newspaper advertising, publishing problems, comparative world journalism, critical reviewing, international information programs, and public opinion, propaganda, and the mass media.
In the years from 1937 to 1965, the department graduated 1,061 men and women, many in distinguished positions in journalism. Seventy-eight received the master of journalism degree, 983 the bachelor of arts degree. During 1964-65, 508 were enrolled in undergraduate courses and 77 in graduate courses. From the department's earliest beginnings, the faculty emphasized the functions and responsibilities of the information media. The study of journalism was closely identified and integrated with the study of the social sciences and humanities. Between 1948-1965, the department brought in eight special guest instructors eminent in their fields, including two Regents' Lecturers, to enrich the department's offerings. Two more were approved as Regents' Lecturers for 1965-66.
It was decided in 1965 to discontinue the undergraduate major in journalism as of 1968. However, both undergraduate and graduate journalism courses continued to be offered. There was increased emphasis on the development of the graduate professional program, using a newly revised master's degree curriculum as a base. source
The Department of Journalism later became the Graduate School of Journalism.
Meanwhile, having transferred to the history department, Jones was teaching courses in international law, constitutional law, and jurisprudence, as well as Roman law. When the Department of Jurisprudence was created in 1894, Jones was made its head. Four years later, a professional emphasis was established by the addition of courses in torts, crimes, and contracts. By 1903, both staff and curriculum had been expanded to a point where three years of professional study were provided and, in that year, three men received the first LL.B. degrees granted at Berkeley: Harry A. Holzer, Moto Y. Negoro, and Charles I. Wright.
Space became a problem: the department was housed in old North Hall, and its 7,000-volume library was in the basement of Bacon Hall. In 1906, Mrs. Elizabeth Boalt provided a gift of $100,000 for a law building, while an additional $50,000 was contributed by lawyers throughout the state. Boalt Hall, constructed with these funds, was dedicated on April 28, 1911. At the same time an endowment fund was established by Mrs. Jane Sather, the income from which was used to buy books for the law library.
The Regents changed the department into the School of Jurisprudence in 1912. Jones was appointed director, later dean, of the school, a position he held until his death in 1923. The school, generally called Boalt Hall, continued to grow in enrollment, faculty, and curriculum.
In 1950, the official name was changed to School of Law, and in 1951, a new building was dedicated. The basic structure retained the name Boalt Hall, but the law library was named in honor of the man who made its construction possible, Garrett W. McEnerney. Further expansion was initiated in 1959, by Boalt Hall alumni who helped raise funds for building the Earl Warren Legal Center. At the same time, the University drew plans for additional classroom, office, and library space. A high-rise law student dormitory, Manville Hall, was made possible through gifts of other friends of the school. The three-part project was scheduled for completion in 1967.
Steel and concrete were of course only a small part of the history of Boalt Hall. Starting with its one Latin instructor, the school gathered from three continents a faculty who offered a broad curriculum. The library had grown to nearly 200,000 volumes by the mid-1960s.
Scores of American and foreign universities and colleges sent students to Boalt Hall, which produced 3,600 graduates in law by the mid-1960s. Among the many distinguished Boalt Hall alumni are Earl Warren, former Chief justice of the United States, and Roger Traynor, former chief justice of California. source
It is not entirely certain what the College of Letters required for the A.B. degree, but presumably Greek and Latin were specified because by 1872, a modification substituting modern languages and natural science was permitted. The priority of the A.B. degree was maintained, however, because the new program qualified the student only for the degree of bachelor of philosophy (Ph.B). By 1874, the two degrees were associated with two separate courses, the classical course and the literary course. By 1881, the degree for the literary course was changed to bachelor of letters (B.L.), but the next year the Ph.B. was re-established for a third course, the course in letters and political science. This three-course system omitted training in natural science, a subject then confined to elementary work and practical applications as taught in agriculture, chemistry, and the various colleges later combined into engineering.
In 1893, the courses were replaced by three separate colleges: the College of Letters, reverted to its original purpose, required Greek and Latin and offered the A.B. degree; the College of Social Science gave "a liberal education without Greek" and offered the B.L. and Ph.B. degrees (the latter was dropped after one year); and the College of Natural Science offered a program leading to the B.S. degree. This organization, with Irving Stringham as dean of all three colleges, was maintained until 1915. In that year, the colleges were amalgamated into the College of Letters and Science, the B.L. and B.S. degrees were discontinued, and the A.B. degree was extended to all programs of the new college. At the same time, the junior certificate was established, whereby a program of lower division courses designed to broaden the student intellectually was required to be completed in the first two years. For the first time science was required of all students, though the requirement could be met by high school courses. The new college also raised the major requirement from 15 to 24 upper-division units.
Two important changes in the college took place between 1940 and 1960. In 1947, the dean assumed budgetary control over the departments of the college, a responsibility previously exercised by the President of the University. In 1954, Dean Alva R. Davis initiated action establishing a Special Committee on Objectives, Programs, and Requirements which, with the aid of a foundation grant, designed a program giving students in the college greater freedom within broadly conceived areas of guidance. This program was approved by the Academic Senate in 1957 and became effective for freshman students entering in September, 1958.
By 1965, nearly 75 departments, research organizations, and special programs comprised the college, and although their activities were extremely diversified, they fell into five major subject matter groups: the arts, language and literature, biological sciences, physical sciences, and social sciences; in addition, there was physical education, aerospace studies, and naval and military science. The University's Seismographic Stations came under the jurisdiction of the college, as did the Lick Observatory until July 1, 1965, when administrative control was transferred to the Santa Cruz campus.
When the College of Letters and Science was established in 1915, there was no dean. In 1922, Monroe E. Deutsch was appointed first dean of the college (1922-30), followed by George D. Louderback (1930-38), Joel H. Hildebrand (1938-44), George P. Adams (1944-47), Davis (1947-55), Lincoln Constance (1955-62), and William B. Fretter (after 1962). source
A one-year curriculum provided basic professional education for those wishing to assume positions in school, public, special, and university libraries. A certificate in librarianship was awarded until 1947, when the bachelor of library science degree was authorized. With an expanded curriculum, this became the master of library science degree in 1955. Advanced study leading to the degrees of doctor of library science and doctor of philosophy was authorized by the University in 1954. From 1928 until 1954, the school had been one of five graduate library schools offering a second-year master's degree; this curriculum was discontinued with the commencement of the doctoral programs.
Following a period of relatively constant student enrollment throughout the 1930s and of sharp decline during the war years, enrollment in the school steadily increased after 1945. In the latter year, 27 students were graduated from the first-year curriculum. By 1955, this number had risen to 52 and by 1965, to 118. In this same 20-year period, eight full-time faculty members joined the instructional staff, making possible a curriculum which reflected the many levels of librarianship.
In 1964, the University authorized the establishment of the Institute of Library Research which, in cooperation with the School of Librarianship and the School of Library Service at Los Angeles, provided opportunities for faculty and student research and for advanced or specialized postgraduate training for practicing librarians. source
The School of Librarianship was renamed the School of Library and Information Studies, which later became the foundation for the current School of Information Management and Systems.
The program in optometry continued as a division in the Department of Physics until 1940, at which time the Department of Optometry in the College of Letters and Science was established as an upper division department offering a two-year program based on two years of preoptometry. In 1941, the School of Optometry was established, authorized to administer a two-year curriculum based on the completion of the requirements for the degree of associate in arts in the College of Letters and Science and leading to the degree of bachelor of science and the certificate in optometry.
In January, 1948, the curriculum was expanded to three years, based on the associate of arts degree, making the total program five years in length, effective with the class entering the School of Optometry in September, 1948. This expanded program led to the B.S. degree at the end of the fourth academic year and the certificate and master of optometry at the end of the fifth year. In 1965, with Academic Senate and Regental approval, the curriculum was increased to four years based on two years of preprofessional education. This six-year program terminated in the degree of doctor of optometry and became effective with the class entering the School of Optometry in 1966.
In February, 1946, the Graduate Council approved a graduate program leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physiological optics. This program was administered by a group of the faculty representing physics, physiology, psychology, optometry, and ophthalmology.
On June 23, 1948, the Optometry Building, formerly Durant Hall, was dedicated. The conversion of Durant Hall was made possible by a building fund of $380,000, $80,000 of which was raised by the California Optometric Association and the balance by an appropriation of the California legislature. source
The origins of the school go back to many academic and professional leaders of public health and medicine in California. They include Robert Legge and John Force, longtime chairmen of the University's Department of Hygiene. During the late 1930s, Karl F. Meyer's Curriculum in Public Health demonstrated the urgent need for a School of Public Health. Public health and medical leaders, including Lawrence Arnstein, Ford Rigby, and William Shepard, presented these needs to the California State Legislature. The resulting bill, AB 515, signed by Governor Earl Warren in 1943, appropriated funds for the school, which was established in 1944 at the Berkeley, Los Angeles, and San Francisco campuses. The organizing dean, Walter Brown, retained Margaret Beattie and Walter Mangold as the faculty nucleus from the antecedent Department of Hygiene. In 1955, the school moved into Earl Warren Hall near the state health department, with which the school was closely linked. In 1960, the University-wide administration of the school was revised to establish two separate schools, one at Los Angeles and the other at Berkeley, with continuing responsibilities to the San Francisco campus.
While the baccalaureate degree program continued in public health-biostatistics, alternative first level preparation for other public health areas enabled the school to devote its major resources to the graduate level.
Graduate curricula led either to professional or academic degrees. The professional degrees, master of public health and doctor of public health, signified competence for positions of administrative leadership in official and voluntary health agencies. The academic master and doctor of philosophy degrees prepared students for careers in research and teaching in specific aspects of the health sciences, such as biostatistics, demography, environmental health, epidemiology, and medical microbiology. The school also conducted a residency program for physicians seeking certification by the American Board of Preventive Medicine.
By the mid-1960s, the 150 graduate degrees annually awarded and the 335 graduates enrolled trebled the 1950 figures and doubled those when Warren Hall was first occupied.
The school enjoyed close liaison with the other professional schools and colleges as well as the academic departments and institutes in Berkeley and San Francisco. Its Naval Biological Laboratory was devoted to aerobiology and related microbiological research; the Sanitary Engineering Research Laboratory, maintained with the College of Engineering, was the scene of pioneering inquiry in the environmental health sciences.
In cooperation with the Western Regional Office of the American Public Health Association, the Schools of Public Health at Berkeley and Los Angeles provided an intensive off-campus program of continuing education to update knowledge of public health workers of California and the other western states.
The school had close affiliation with official and voluntary health organizations of the bay region. The school represented the University in the Berkeley Unified Health Plan, by which the city, unified school district, Visiting Nurse Association, and the University provided health services to the Berkeley community. The plan benefited not only the quality of these services but also the instruction and research of the school. Moreover, the plan fostered the friendship of town and gown. source
In 1912, the Department of Economics, stating that "the widespread interest in the control of poverty has given rise, in recent years, to a demand for the services of the trained social worker," announced the inauguration of the Curriculum in Social Economics. The program included a year of graduate study, mainly in economics with field work in the Associated Charities of San Francisco. The plan in general followed the ideas and aspirations of professional schools of social work already established in New York and Chicago. This basic idea--a graduate program combining social science and psychological studies with practical experience in welfare agencies-- endured. Since graduates mostly went into casework, over the years the psychological component of the curriculum came to be more important than "social economics." Professional preoccupations changed, from child welfare and community organization in the 1920s to relief and social security in the depression of the 1930s.
Although the student body grew slowly, progress was steadily made in the period between the two World Wars under the successive leadership of Professors Lucy Ward Stebbins, Emily Noble Plehn, and Martha Chickering. In 1927, the instruction was formalized into a Curriculum of Social Service leading to a graduate certificate in social service, which was accredited in 1928 by the American Association of Schools of Social Work. In 1939, a new era was inaugurated in social welfare education on the campus under the leadership of Harry M. Cassidy, who was called from the directorship of the public welfare department of British Columbia to head a new Department of Social Welfare. In 1940, a two-year master's degree program was inaugurated and in 1944, his planning efforts reached fruition when the Regents approved his plan for a graduate, professional School of Social Welfare with a two-year curriculum leading to a professional master of social welfare degree.
The School of Social Welfare achieved its most rapid growth and development after World War II. Its student body grew so rapidly that it went from 12th to second in size among accredited graduate schools of social work in the United States and Canada. Its master's degree program included every specialty recognized by the profession of social work. In 1959, a doctor of social welfare program was approved by the Regents.
By the mid-1960s, social welfare education on the Berkeley campus included: an undergraduate group major in social welfare in the College of Letters and Science; a two-year master's degree program which graduated every kind of social caseworker, social group worker and social worker specializing in community organization and administration; doctoral students equipped to teach and do research; and a wide-spread extension program throughout northern California serving the diversified educational needs of practicing social workers. source
Copyright © 1999-2005
The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
Last updated 06/18/04.