San Francisco: Departments
Anesthesia and Perioperative Care
Anthropology, History, and Social medicine
The first professor of anatomy in Toland
Medical College was Dr. J. Newton Brown, who occupied the chair
from 1864 until 1866 and was succeeded by Dr. Levi Cooper Lane;
the latter resigned in 1870 and was replaced by Dr. Vansant. In
1874, a year after Toland Medical College became the Medical Department
of the University, Dr. Alexander A. O'Neil was appointed professor
of anatomy and elected dean. In 1878, the responsibilities of the
Department of Anatomy fell upon Dr. (later Dean) Robert A. McLean;
but the next year, Dr. William Lewitt became lecturer in anatomy
and made his son, Dr. William B. Lewitt, his assistant. The latter
was given the chair in 1884 and taught both medical and dental anatomy.
In 1891, Dr. John M. Williamson succeeded Dr.
Lewitt but resigned in 1901 to become professor of genito-urinary
surgery. Dr. John C. Merriam, special lecturer on comparative anatomy,
and Drs. Stephen Cleary and Charles D. McGettigan then conducted
courses until the chair was occupied by Dr. Joseph Marshall Flint
in 1902. The latter, along with Drs. Robert O. Moody and Irving
Hardesty, extensively reorganized teaching in the department and
separate courses were instituted on histology, microscopic organology,
neurology, osteology, regional anatomy, and organogenesis. In addition,
a course in special anatomy for physicians and advanced students
was established, and opportunities provided for capable students
to undertake research. The earthquake in 1906 resulted in the transfer
of the Department of Anatomy from Parnassus Heights to the Berkeley
campus, where it remained until 1958.
For the next six years, the responsibility of
instruction rested with Drs. Hardesty and Moody until the appointment
of Dr. Herbert M. Evans to the chair in 1915. Interest in experimental
research was now intensified, and the department received international
recognition for studies on vital dyes, the estrous cycle of the
rat, pituitary growth hormone, and the discovery of vitamin E. From
1931 on, much of the departmental research was undertaken in the
Institute of Experimental Biology, Berkeley campus, under the direction
of Dr. Evans, who had the valuable cooperation of Drs. Miriam E.
Simpson, Alexei A. Koneff, William R. Lyons, Choh Hao Li, Marjorie
M. Nelson, and many others. In 1934, the chair was occupied by Dr.
I. Maclaren Thompson, who was succeeded in 1937 by Dr. J. B. deC.
M. Saunders; the latter held the chairmanship until 1956, when he
was appointed dean, School of Medicine (later provost, then chancellor,
San Francisco campus). Dr. W. O. Reinhardt then became chairman,
resigning in 1963, when he was appointed dean, School of Medicine;
he was succeeded by Dr. Ian W. Monie. In 1960, a section on experimental
endocrinology was established as a subdivision of the department.
The Department of Anatomy provided instruction
and research opportunities for medical and graduate academic students,
medical graduates, postdoctoral fellows, and visitors from overseas.
Research was undertaken in endocrinology, teratology, embryology,
immunology, hematology, organ culture, electron microscopy, and
on the nervous, cardiovascular, and locomotor systems. Two staff
members were honored as Faculty Research Lecturers. Dr. H. M. Evans
(at Berkeley in 1925 and at San Francisco in 1959) and Dr. W. R.
Lyons (at San Francisco in 1963). source
Anesthesia and Perioperative Care
Prior to 1900, faculty surgeons taught anesthetic
methods and agents to medical students as a sidelight to surgery.
By 1918, the Announcement of Courses stated that the Department
of Surgery gave "lectures and demonstrations in the physiology of
respiration and circulation. . .and the effects of anesthetics,"
and that fourth-year students would "administer anesthetics under
the supervision of members of the department." During the 1920's
and 1930's anesthetics were administered or supervised by physicians
employed by the hospital as a service function. They were mostly
self-taught. Elective practical courses in anesthesia were available
to the medical students during this period.
In 1940 Dr. Herbert M. Hathaway was the first
physician to have a full-time faculty appointment in the discipline
of anesthesia. In 1941 he was made chairman of a newly created Division
of Anesthesia in the Department of Surgery. Under Dr. Hathaway,
a postdoctoral residency program was initiated. Dr. Frank J. Murphy
became the chairman in 1947 and remained until shortly before departmental
status was granted in 1958.
On July 1, 1958, the Department of Anesthesia
was established and Dr. Stuart C. Cullen was named chairman. Under
his guidance, a research program headed by Dr. John Severinghaus
was initiated and the postdoctoral and medical student teaching
program strengthened. From five faculty and ten resident positions
in 1958, the department's faculty grew to ten full-time positions
supported by the University, three research positions supported
by the National Institutes of Health and two clinical positions
supported by other funds by the mid-1960's. The residency training
program grew to 23 residency positions and four research trainee
Responsibility for the anesthesia service and
teaching at the San Francisco General Hospital was assumed by the
department in 1959. The same year saw an affiliation formed with
the Children's Hospital of the East Bay for special instruction
in pediatric anesthesia. In 1962 supervision and teaching of obstetrical
anesthesia was undertaken and implemented by a full-time faculty
appointment. Since 1963 the department had approval for a three-year
residency program. Expansion in 1965 came with the appointment of
a full-time faculty member for teaching, research, and patient care
in the intensive care unit of Moffitt Hospital. By 1965 13 clinical
appointees assisted in the teaching program on a part-time basis.
Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine
There is no history currently available
for this department.